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Jihad in Modern Islamic Thought

Jihad in the Qur'an and Sunnah
Publisher's Note
After the testimony of Oneness of Allah swt and the Messengership of Muhammad (pbuh), with firm belief and True Faith, one has to perform the acts of worship as ordained by Islam.
Among the obligatory acts of worship are offering the Salat (prayers), observing the Saum (fasts), paying the Zakat and performing the Hajj (pilgrimage to Makka). Besides these acts of worship, a Muslim is directed to abstain from evil deeds and to perform good deeds, so that he may achieve success in the Hereafter, as well as, in the life of this world.
But, as regards the reward and blessing, there is one deed which is very great in comparison to all the acts of worship and all the good deeds-and that is Jihad !
Jihad is regarded as the best thing, one can offer voluntarily. It is superior to non‑obligatory prayers, fasting, Zakat, Umra and Hajj as mentioned in the Qur'an and the Ahadith of the Prophet(pbuh). The benefits of Jihad are of great extent and large in scope, while its effects are far-reaching and wide-spreading as regards Islam and the Muslims. For an individualMuslim, Jihad includes all acts of worship and all aspects of belief- thus bringing him greatest reward and vast blessings; and for the Muslim nation, Jihad provides all kinds of successes in respect of prosperity and dignity, victory and glory-thus bringing magnificence and splendour.
In this article, Sheikh 'Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Humaid, ex-Chief Justice of Saudi Arabia, has presented Jihad in the light of Qur'an and Sunna. Never before such an article was seen, describing Jihad in its true colours-so heart evoking and encouraging! May Allah bless him with all His Blessings for all times.
Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, the translator of the Noble Qur'an and the Sahih Al‑Bukhari, has translated this article from Arabic to the English language with all its fervor and feelings. May Allah reward him with best of His Rewards.
We are publishing this article and recommend every Muslim not only to read it himself but to offer every other Muslim brother within his read.
May Allah shower His Blessings on everyone of us- Ameen.

Abdul Malik Mujahid
General Manager
Originally Published by:
 Maktaba Dar-us-Salam
 Publishers and Distributors
Praise be to Allah swt Who has ordained Al-Jihad (the holy fighting in Allah's Cause):
1. With the heart (intentions or feelings),
2. With the hand (weapons, etc.),
3. With the tongue (speeches, etc., in the Cause of Allah)
Allah has rewarded the one who performs it with lofty dwellings in the Gardens (of Paradise).
I testify that there is none who has the right to be worshipped but Allah (swt) Alone and He has no partners (with Him). I (also) testify that Muhammad (pbuh) is His slave and His Messenger, the one sent by Allah Law as a mercy for the 'Alameen (mankind and jinns); the one commanded by Allah (swt) to fight against Al‑Mushrikun[l] (and all those who ascribe partners with Allah). He fought for Allah's Cause with all his power and ability-may Allah's Peace and Blessings be upon him, upon his followers and upon his companions who believed in him, and honoured him, helped him and followed the light (the Qur'an) and his .As‑Sunna (the legal ways, orders, acts of worship, statements, etc.) which was revealed to him...those who emigrated and fought in the Cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives, they were the supreme conquerors and the masters.
[1l Al-Mushrikun (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, and disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah and in His Messenger Muhammad (pbuh)
4 It is well known how the Messenger (pbuh) was fighting against Al‑Mushrikun (and all those who ascribe partners with Allah (swt) since Allah, the Most Respectful, the All‑Majestic sent him and honoured him with the Messengership till Allah caused him to die and selected for him what was with Him (Paradise and all that is good).
The Prophet (pbuh) used to visit the people in their gatherings during season days (Hajj and Umra) and other days (too). He used to go to their market places, recite the Qur'an, invite them to Allah, the Most Respectful, the All‑Majestic. He used to say, "Who will give me a safe shelter, and who will support me till I convey the Message of my Lord (Allah) then he will have Paradise." But he would not find anyone to support him or to give him a safe shelter.
He (Prophet Muhammad pbuh ) carried on his mission of inviting people to Allah Ta'ala‑ (Islamic Religion) and persisted in (this) invitation for 13 years inspite of the harm and injuries (which he suffered), and he used to forgive the ignorant... in order that Allah's Proof be established against them (disbelievers) and that His Promise be fulfilled to them (disbelievers) which He assured them with His Statement:
And We never punish until We have sent a Messenger (to give warning) (V. 17:15).
The people continued in their transgression, they did not take guidance from the manifest proof. The Quraish (people) oppressed and harmed all those who followed him (Muhammad pbuh) from his tribe, put them to trials and afflictions in order to keep them away from their religion (Islam), even to the extent that they exiled them from their homeland, some of them fled to Ethiopia, some went to Al‑Madina (Al‑Munawwara) and some remained patient ( at Makka ) in spite of the harm they received; by being imprisoned, made to suffer from hunger and thirst and by being beaten (in a horrible manner)... so much so that some of them were not able to sit straight from the severity (of the injuries) of the beatings.
They used to tie a rope around the neck of Bilal (may Allah be pleased with him) and give the end of that rope in the hands of boys to play and drag him through the pathways of Makka .... And as to what Yasir's family suffered from the torrnent was beyond what a normal human being can endure.
The Quraish (people) harmed Allah's Messenger (Muhammad pbuh) (too), they besieged him in AshShi'b, once 'Uqbah bin Abi Mu'ait tried to strangle him and he kept on squeezing the Prophet's clothes round his neck till the eyes of the Prophet pbuh bulged out, and Abu‑Bakr rushed at 'Uqbah and released the Prophet pbuh from him and said, "Would you kill a man because he says: My Lord is Allah Ta'ala?"
Abu Jahl also tried to kill the Messenger (pbuh) while the latter was in prostration praying in the Al‑Masjid‑al‑Haram, he carried a huge stone to throw it on the Prophet's (pbuh) head. But when he (Abu Jahl) tried to throw it he turned on his heels full of fear and fright saying:"I am being prevented (going near) from Muhammad by a huge stallion camel intending to swallow me."
And when Allah, The Most Exalted, wanted to reveal His religion (Islam) and to fulfill His Promise and to make victorious His Prophet (pbuh) Allah, the Most High ordered him to emigrate to Al‑Madina. So he stayed there and Allah supported him with His Victory and with His slaves, the faithful believers-the Islamic army unit composed of different sorts of people (black, white, and red). They strove hard for him with all their efforts, and preferred his love to the love of (their) fathers, offspring and wives.
Muhammad, upon him be peace, was closer to them (believers) than their own selves. The (pagan) Arabs and Jews had formed a united front against them (Muhammad pbuh and his followers) and had put up all their efforts of enmity, standing and fighting against them... and (in fact) they shouted against them from every corner. Then, at that time Allah permitted them (Muhammad pbuh and his followers) the (Jihad) fighting but He did not make it obligatory. He said:
Permission to fight is given to those (i.e. believers against disbelievers) who are fighting them (and) because they (believers) have been wronged, and surely Allah is Able to give them (believers) victory.
Those who have been expelled from their homes unjustly only because they said:"Our Lord is Allah." (V.22:39,40).
The above Verses clearly state that He (Allah) is Able to give victory to His worshippers (the believers) without fighting, but Allah wants from His worshippers obedience with all their efforts. As in His Statement:
So when you meet (in fight... Jihad in Allah's Cause) those who disbelieve smite at their necks till when you have killed and wounded many of them, then bind a bond firmly (on them, i.e. take them as captives). Thereafter (is the time) either for generosity (i.e. free them without ransom) or ransom (according to whatbenefits Islam), until the war lays down its burden. Thus [you are ordered by Allah to continue in carrying out Jihad againstthe disbelievers till they embrace Islam (i.e. are saved from the punishment in the Hell­fire) orat leastcome under your protection] but if it had been Allah's Will, He Himself could certainly have punished them (without you). But (He lets you fight) in orderto test you, some with others. But those who are killed in the Way of Allah, He will never let their deeds be lost.
He will guide them and set right their state.
And admit them to Paradise which He has made known to them (i.e. they will know their places in Paradise more than they used to know their houses in this world). (V.47:4, 5,6).
Then after that He made (Jihad) "fighting" obligatory against all those who fight you (Muslims); not against those who didn't fight you. So Allah ordered:
And fight in the way of Allah those who fight you... (V.2:I9O).
Then Allah (swt) revealed in Sarah Tauba (Bara 'a) (Repentance, IX) the order to discard (all) the obligations (covenants, etc.) and commanded the Muslims to fight against all the Mushrikun as well as against the people of the Scriptures (Jews and Christians) if they do not embrace Islam, till they pay the Jizya (a tax levied on the non‑Muslims who do not embrace Islam and are under the protectionofanlslamicgovernment) with willing submission and feel themselves subdued (as it is revealed in the Verse 9:29). So they (Muslims) were not permitted to abandon "the fighting" against them (Pagans, Jews and Christians) and to reconcile with them and to suspend hostilities against them for an unlimited period while they are strong and are able to fight against them (non Muslims).
As it is now obvious, at first "the fighting" was forbidden, then it was permitted and after that it was made obligatory- ( I ) against them who start "the fighting" against you (Muslims)... (2) and against all those who worship others along with Allah... as mentioned in SurahAI‑BaqaraSl (II), Al‑lmran (III) and Tauba (IX)... and other Sarah (Chapters of the Qur'an). Allah (swt) made "the fighting' (Jihad) obligatory for the Muslims and gave importance to the subject‑matter of Jihad in all the Sarah (Chapters of the Qur'an) which were revealed (at Al‑Madina) as in Allah's Statement:
March forth whether you are light (being healthy, young and wealthy) or heavy (being ill, old and poor), strive [ hard with your wealth and your lives in the Cause of Allah. This is better for you if you but knew. (V.9:41).
And He (Allah) said:
Jihad (holy fighting in Allah's Cause) is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not know. (V.2:216)
"The fighting", even though by its nature is disliked by the human soul because of the liability, of being killed, orbeing taken as a captive, or being injured, with the wasting ofthe wealth, the damaging of the industries, the destruction ofthe country, the spreading of fear and awe in the souls and the (possibility) of being exiled from one's homeland, Allah had made ready an immensely good reward that cannot be imagined by a human soul.
'Ikrima (a religious scholar) said: At first Muslims disliked it (Jihad), but later they loved it and said: "We listen and obey." And that is because the submission to the order to fight means hardship, but if the reward is made known it becomes to compare the hardship involved and its reward.
The Verses of the Qur'an and the Sunna (the Prophet's legal ways, orders etc.) have exhorted greatly for Jihad and have made quite clear its rewards, and praised greatly thosewhoperform Jihad (the holy fighting in Allah's Cause) and explained to them various kinds of honours which they will receive from their Lord (Allah swt). This is because they-Mudahidin are Allah's troops. Allah (swt) will establish His religion (Islam), with them (Mujahidin). He will repel the might of His enemies, and with them He will protect Islam and guard the religion safely.
And it is they, (Mujahidin) who fight against the enemies of Allah in order that the worship should be all for Allah (Alone and not for any other deity) and that the Word of Allah (swt) (i.e. none has the right to be worshipped but Allah (swt) and His religion Islam) should be superior. Allah has made them (Mujahidin) partners in reward along with all those who guard Islam with their weapons, along with their good deeds which they performed even if they sleep in their homes.
And the Legislator (Allah) put the one who brings about a thing to happen equal in rank to its doer, both in reward (for the good deed) and in punishment (for a crime). So the inviter to a good deed and the inviter to an evil deed both will have a reward (good or bad) equal to the reward of the one who has done that deed.
And sufficient is Allah's Statement in this matter:
O you who believe! Shall I guide you to a commerce that will save you from a painful torment? (V.61: 10)
After this Verse was revealed the souls became filled with the yearning for this profitable commerce which Allah (swt), the Lord of 'Alameen (mankind, jinns and all that exists), the All-Knower, the All‑Wise Himself directed the people towards. Allah (swt) said:
That you believe in Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad pbuh) and that you strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allah (swt) with your wealth and your lives... (V.61:11 )
Allah (swt) further said:
That will be better for you if you but know (V.61:11 )
i.e. Jihad (holy fighting in Allah's Cause) is better for you than your staying (back at home). Regarding the reward Allah said:
(If you do so) He will forgive you your sins, and admit you into Gardens under which rivers flow and pleasant dwellings in Gardens of Eternity ( 'Adn Paradise)-that is indeed the great success. (V.6 1 :12).
So it was as if they (the souls) said (as regards the above Verse): This is for us in the Hereafter and there is nothing for us in this world. Then Allah saw said:
And also (He will give you) another (blessing) which you love,-help from Allah (against your enemies) and a near victory. And give glad tidings (O Muhammad A, v zua p ) to the believers. (V.61: 13).
Good gracious (indeed)! how nice are these (Allah's) Words and how they appeal to the human hearts. How great is the attraction for them and how they lead one towards one's Lord (Allah swt). How soothing are they for the hearts of every lover of good. How great is the contentment of the heart and a happy life when one understands their meaning. We supplicate Allah Ta'ala to bestow upon us His Blessings.
And Allah said:
Do you consider the providing of drinking water to pilgrims and the maintenance of Al‑MasMid‑al‑Haram (at Makka) as equal to the worth of those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allah? They are not equal before Allfih! And Allah guides not those people who are the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong‑doers). (V.9:19).
Those who believed (in the Oneness of Allah-Islamic Monotheism) and emigrated and strove hard and fought in Allah's Cause with their wealth and their lives are far higher in degree with Allah. They are the successful. (V.9:20).
Their Lord gives them glad tidings of a Mercy from Him and that He is pleased (with them) and of Gardens (Paradise) for them wherein are everlasting delights. (V.9:21).
They will dwell therein for ever. Verily, with Allah is a great reward. (V.9:22).
In the above Verses Allah (swt) the Most High, be He glorified above all that they ascribe to Him, informs that those who maintain Al‑MasMid­al‑Haram (at Makka) [and the maintenance of the mosque means to do i'tikaf in it, the tawaf (circumambulation) of the Ka'ba, and the offering of Salat (prayers) in it, etc.] mentioned in the above said Verse-and those who provide drinking water to the pilgrims are not equal to those who did Jihad in Allah's Cause. Allah (swt) informed that the believers who fight in Allah's Cause (Mujdhidln) are far superior in grades before Him and it is they who will be successful.
And they are the ones who have received the glad tidings of: (I) His Mercy, (2) His being pleased with them, (3) and Gardens (Paradise).
Hence Allah (swt) denied the equality between the Mujahidin (those who fight in Allah's Cause) and those who maintain the Al‑Masdid­al‑Hardm (at Makka) along with the various kinds of worship, in spite of His praising those who maintain the mosques in His Statement:
The Mosques of Allah shall be maintained only by those who believe in Allah Raw and the Last Day, perform Iqamat‑as‑Salat, and give Zakat and fear none but Allah. It is they who are expected to be on true guidance. (V.9:18).
So it is they (above said people) who are called by Allah (swt) "the maintainers of the mosques"-And in spite of all this, still the people who do Jihad are far superior in grade than them (maintainers of the mosques) before Allah (swt).
Allah (swt) said:
Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home) except those who are disabled (by injury, or are blind, or lame, etc.) and those who strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives. Allah (swt) has preferred in grades those who strive hard and fight with their wealth and lives above those who sit (at home). Unto each Allah has promised good (Paradise), but Allah has preferred those who strive hard and fight, above those who sit (at home) by a huge reward. (V.4:95).
Degrees of (higher) grades from Him, and Forgiveness and Mercy. And Allah is Ever Oft‑Forgiving, Most Merciful (V.4:96).
Allah (the All‑Mighty) denied the equality between the believers who sit (at home) and join not in Jihad-and the Mujahidin (those who fight in Allah's Cause),-Then He mentioned the superiority of the Mujahidin over those (believers) who sit (at home) by a grade and then later on mentioned their (Mudahidin's) superiority over them (believers who sit at home) by degrees of grades. Ibn Zaid (a religious scholar) said: The degrees of grades with which Allah (swt) preferred the Mujahidin over those (believers) who sit (at home) are seven and these Allah mentioned in His Statement:
... That is because they suffer neither thirst, nor fatigue, nor hunger in the Cause of Allah (swt), nor they take any step to raise the anger of disbelievers nor inflict any injury upon an enemy, but is written to their credit as a deed of righteousness. Surely Allah loses not the reward of the Muhsinun. (V.9: 120).
These are five-then Allah said:
Nor do they spend anything (in Allah's Cause)-small or great,-nor cross a valley, but is written to their credit... (V.9:121).
So these are two bringing the total to seven.
Ibn Qaiyyam after mentioning the statement of Ibn Zaid said: True! Indeed the degrees of grades mentioned are reported in Sahih Al­Bukha^ri:
Narrated Abu Huraira (raa) The Prophet (pbuh) said,
"Whoever believes in Allah and His Messenger (pbuh), performs Iqamat‑as‑Salat and observes Saum (fasts in the month of Ramadan), then it will be a promise binding upon Allah to admit him to Paradise no matter whether he fights in Allah's Cause or remains in the lane where he is born." The people said, "O Allah" Messenger! Shall we inform the people of this good news?" He (pbuh) said, "Paradise has one hundred grades which Allah has reserved for the Mujahidin who fight in His Cause, and the distance between each of the two grades is like the distance between the heaven and the earth. So, when you ask Allah (for something), ask for Al‑Firdaus which is the middle (best) and highest part of Paradise." [The sub narrator added, "I think the Prophet (pbuh) also said, 'Above it (i.e. Al‑Firdaus) is the Throne of the Beneficent (i.e. Allah), and from it originate the rivers of Paradise."'] (Hadlth No. 48, Vol. 4).
Ibn Qaiyyam said as regards the Statement of Allah (swt)
Verily, Allah has purchased of the believers their lives and their properties; for the price that theirs shall be the Paradise. They fight in Allah's Cause, so they kill (others) and are killed. It Is a promise in truth which is binding on Him in the Torah and the Gospel and the Qur'an. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah? Then rejoice in the bargain which you have concluded. That is the supreme success. (V.9:111).
So Allah (swt) has put Paradise as the price of the believers and their properties, so if they sacrifice their lives and properties for His Cause, then they deserve the prize (Paradise) and the bargain which they concluded with Him. He reassured them with a number of assurances:
(I) Allah informed them (believers) with a wording: "Surely."
(2) In wording of past tense as it had happened, and was confirmed and it remained as it was.
(3) Moreover, He took upon Himself the responsibility of this convenant as He Himself bought the deal.
(4) He informed that He has promised to give this price (Paradise) and shall neither break His Promise, nor shall neglect it.
(5) It has come in wording of obligation and as information for His worshippers that it is a binding on Him.
(6) He confirmed that it is indeed a binding on Him.
(7) He has informed that it (this bargain) is written in the Best Books revealed from the heavens (i.e. the Torah, the Gospel, the Qur'an).
(8) He informed them (His worshippers) in a wording of inquiry and denial that there is none Truer to his convenant than Him (Allah).
(9) He the Glorified, the Most High ordered them to receive the glad tidings of this contract (bargain) and give the good news to one another (those) who concluded this contract (bargain) and stood firm on it [as they accepted no other alternative to it or committed anything that will cancel it (the deal)].
(10) He informed them of a truly sure news that there is a supreme success in the bargain (contract) which the have concluded. And bargain here means that the thing which they shall receive with this price (their lives and properties) is Paradise.
And His (Allah's) Statement:
Bargain which you have concluded. (V.9:111)
i.e. the price with which you have exchanged the deal, then Allah, the Glorified mentioned the kinds of people who have concluded this contract (deal) and not any other (as mentioned in His Statement):
(The believers whose lives Allah has purchased are) those who repent to Allah (from polytheism and hypocrisy, etc.), who worship Him, who praise Him, who observe Saum (fast) (or go out in Allah's Cause), who bow down [in Salat (prayer)], who prostrate themselves, [in Salat (prayer)], who enjoin (people) forAI‑Ma'ruf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam has ordained) and forbid (people) from Al‑Munkar (i.e. disbelief, polytheism of all kinds and all that Islam has forbidden) and who observe the limits set by Allah (do all that Allah has ordained and abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which Allah has forbidden). And give glad tidings to the believers. (V.9:112)
And sufficient is this excellence-(for a Mujahid which he will receive) honour and high degrees of grade- along with other things which Allah (swt) has made clear in the Qur'an: about the description of the reward of Mujahidin,their magnificent state, moving of feelings and sentiments, the demanding of sacrifice in the cause of inviting others to Islam, to put strength and courage in the souls and to urge them to go forward and be stable and firm, and Allah (swt) will grant them victory and support them with the angels, as it is evident from the Statement of Allah:
Remember when you (Muhammad pbuh) said to the believers, "Is it not enough for you that your Lord (Allah) should help you with three thousand angels sent down?" Yes, if you hold on to patience and piety and the enemy comes rushing at you; your Lord will help you with five thousand angels having marks (of distinction). Allah made it not but as a message of good news for you and as an assurance to your hearts, and there is no victory except from Allah the All­Mighty, the All‑Wise. (V.3:124, 125, 126).
So do not become weak (against your enemy), nor be sad and you will be superior (in victory) if you are indeed (true) believers. If a wound (and killing) has touched you, be sure a similar wound (and killing) has touched the others. And so are the days (good and not so good). We give to men by turns, that Allah may test those who believe, and that He may take martyrs from among you. And Allah likes not the Zalimun (polytheists and wrongdoers). And that Allah may test (or purify) the believers (from sins) and destroy the disbelievers. Do you think that you will enter Paradise before Allah test those of you who fought (in His Cause) and (also) test those who are patient? (V.3:139,140,141,142).
And Allah informed about those who are martyred in His Way. They are alive and that they are with their Lord Allah (swt) finding what they wish of provisions and their faces are delighted with glad tidings. As Allah said:
Think not of those who are killed in the Way of Allah as dead. Nay, they are alive, with their Lord and they have provision.
They rejoice in what Allah has bestowed upon them of His Bounty, rejoicing for the sake of those who have not yet joined them, but are left behind(not yet martyred) that on them no fear shall come, nor shall they grieve.
They rejoice in a Grace and a Bounty from Allah and that Allah will not waste the reward of the believers.
Those who answered (the Call of) Allah and the Messenger (Muhammad pbuh) after being wounded; for those of them who did good deeds and feared Allah, there is a great reward. (V.3:169‑172)
And He (Allah swt) said:
Those who believe, fight in the Cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of Taghut (Satan etc.). So fight you against the friends of Satan; ever feeble indeed is the plot of Satan.(V.4:76).
Then fight, (O Muhammad pbuh), in the Cause of Allah, you are not tasked (held responsible) except for yourself, and incite the believers (to fight along with you), it may be that Allah will restrain the evil might of the disbelievers. And Allah is Stronger in might and Stronger in punishing. (V.4:84).
And He (Allah swt) said:
Let those (believers) who sell the life of this world for the Hereafter, fight in the Cause of Allah; and whoso fights in the Cause of Allah and is killed orgets victory, We shall bestow on him a great reward. (V.4:74).
And so on-there are other similar Verses (in the Qur'an) -after these.
Think deeply, dear brother in Islam, how Allah (swt) encourages the spirit to make His Word superior and to protect the weak, and to rescue the oppressed ones. Also think deeply how Jihad is connected with Salat (prayers) and Saum (fasting). It is made obvious that Jihad similar to both of them, and all the three (Jihad, Salat and Saum) are ordained (by Allah) for the believers. See how Allah has encouraged the cowardly men to plunge themselves into the battles, to face death with an open heart and to run madly for it (Jihad) with great encouragement showing clearly to them that death will certainly overtake them and in case they die as Mujahidin (Martyrs) they will compensated for their worldly life with a mighty compensation and they will not be dealt with unjustly in the very least.
Jihad is a great deed indeed and there is no deed whose reward or blessing is as that of it, and for this reason, it is the best thing that one can volunteer for. All the Muslim religious scholars unanimously agree that Jihad is superior to Hajj and 'Umra (pilgrimage) and also superior to non‑obligatory Salat (prayer) and Saum (fasting) as mentioned in the Qur'anand Prophet's Sunna. It is obvious that the benefits of Jihad for us are extensive and comprehensive, it(Jihad) includes all kinds of worship both hidden and open, it also includes (a great) love for Allah (swt) and it shows one's sincerity to Him and it also shows one's trust in Him, and it indicates the handing over of one's soul and property to Him- it (Jihad) shows one's patience, one's devotion to Islam, one's remembrance to Allah (swt) and there are other kinds of good deeds which are present in Jihad and are not present in any other act of worship.
For these above mentioned degrees of grades of various kinds of worship one should race for Jihad. It is confirmed in the two authentic books (of Hadlth). Narrated Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with him): I heard Allah's Messenger saying,
"By Him in Whose Hands my soul is! Were it not for some man amongst the believers who dislike to be left behind me, and whom I cannot provide with means of conveyance, I would certainly never remain behind any Sariya (army unit) going out for Jihad in Allah's Cause. By Him in Whose Hands my life is! I would love to be martyred in Allah's Cause and then come back to life and then be martyred and then come back to life again and then be martyred and then come back to life again and then be martyred. " (Sahih Al‑Bukhari, Vol 4, Hadith No.54).
So the Prophet (pbuh), through his ways of life, firmness, his courage, and his patience has deeply encouraged the Mujahidin for Allah's Cause.
He (pbuh) informed them of Jihad 's advanced and delayed reward that is for them, and how different kinds of evils Allah (swt) repels with it; and what a great honour, power, dignity and high grade is obtained through it and he He (pbuh) has put Jihad at the top in Islam. The Prophet (pbuh) said:
"Paradise has one hundred grades, the distance between each of the two grades is like the distance between the heaven and the earth, and these grades Allah (swt) has reserved for the Mudahidin who fight in His Cause" [as mentioned in the two authentic Books (Al­Bukhari and Muslim)]. [See Sahih Al‑Bukhari, Vol 4, Hadlth No. 48].
It is narrated in the book Sahih Al‑Bukhari, Allah's Messenger (pbuh) said:
"Anyone whose both feet get covered with dust in Allah's Cause will not be touched by the Hell‑fire." (Vol. 4, Hadlth No. 66).
It is also narrated in the two books (Al‑Bukha^ri and Muslim):
A man said: "O Allah s Messenger (pbuh)! Inform me of a thing that is equal to Jihad (in Allah's Cause)!" Allah's Messenger (pbuh) said, "You cannot (do that). The man said: "Inform me of that. Allah's Messenger (pbuh) said: "Can you observe Saum (fast) continuously without eating or drinking (at all) and stand continuously in Salat (prayer) from the time the Mujahidin go out for Jihad (till the time they return back home)? The man replied, "No." Allah's Messenger said: "That is (the thing) which is equal to Jiha^d. Likewise Allah's Messenger (pbuh) said:
I) The souls of the martyrs are in the green birds dwelling in Paradise wherever they like.
2) That all their sins and faults are forgiven.
3) That he can intercede with Allah (swt) for seventy (70) of his family members.
4) That he will come secure on the Day of Resurrection from the great terror.
S) That he will not feel the agonies and distress of death.
6) That he will not be horrified by the (great) Gathering (on the Day of Resurrection).
7) That he does not feel the pain of "the killing" except like that of a pinch.
And how many agonies and distresses are there for a person who dies on his bed- and a standing (praying) or a sleeping person in Jihad is better than a fasting or standing (praying) person not in Jihad- and whosoever acted as a guard or escort in Allah's Cause, his eyes will never witness the Fire (Hell) and that a day spent while one is in Jihad for Allah's Cause is better than the world and whatsoever is in it.
If one has understood (all) that, then Allah (swt) has reproached those who remained behind from Allah's Messenger (pbuh) during the battle of Tabuk (i.e. they did not join in it)- they who cling heavily to the luxuries of this world- they who lagged behind from hastening onwards to march forth (for the battle of Tabuk)-As Allah said:
O you who believe! What is the matter with you,that when you are asked to march forth in the Cause of Allah (i.e. go for Jihad), you cling heavily to the earth? Are you pleased with the life of this world rather than the Hereafter? But little is the enjoyment of the life of this world as compared with the Hereafter. (V.9:38).
Similarly Allah (swt) disapproved of those who abandoned Jihad (i.e. they did not go for Jihad) and attributed to them hypocrisy and disease in their hearts, and threatened (all) those who remain behind from Jihad and sit (at home) with horrible punishment. He (Allah swt) accused them with the most ugly descriptions, rebuked them for their cowardice and spoke against them (about their weakness and their remaining behind) as He said:
If you march not forth, He will punish you with a painful torment and will replace you by another people and you cannot harm Him at all, and Allah is Able to do all things (V.9:39).
And there are many Verses of the Qur'an after this Verse (that threaten the Muslim nation if they give up Jihad).
And you will not find any organization past or present, religious or non‑religious as regards (Jihad and military) (ordering) the whole nation to march forth and mobilize all of them. into active military service as a single row for Jihad in Allah's Cause so as to make superior the Word of Allah (i.e. none has the right to be worshipped but Allah), as you will find in the Islamic Religion and its teachings.
The Qur'an and As‑Sunna (the legal ways of Prophet Muhammad pbuh) have clearly given (wonderful explanation for) each and every act concering Jihad. The Book has distributed its different actions and its great number of responsibilities on its special units, a most accurate distribution that excels above all the modern organizations and the military teachings. And in fact these modern organizations and military teachings are only a small portion (drop) of the military laws of the Qur'an and As‑Sunna.
The Verses of Qur'an and As‑Sunna of Allah's Messenger Muhammad (pbuh) are both flooded with these high meanings, calling with eloquent phrases in a crystal clear way.
The Muslims were ordered to take all precautions against the enemies of Allah Jag and to get ready against them with all they can of power-because that is the first step for Jihad (fighting) and the supreme way for the defence. To get ready (for Jihad includes various kinds of preparations and weapons [ missiles, artillery, aeroplanes (air force), naval ships (navy and the training of the soldiers in these weapons] are included under (the meaning) of the word "force (i.e land, navy and air‑force)." And to look after (take care of permanent forces as well as the stationed forces similar to looking after the mobile forces. And to take care of the army in peace‑time as well as during war‑time.
1 1 The foundation of the military spirit as they say: obedience and military discipline. Allah (swt) has gathered these foundations in the Verses of His Book (The Qur'an).
As to the obdience, Allah (swt) said:
Those who believe say: "Why is not a Surah (Chapter the Qur'an) sent down (for us)?" But when a decisive Surah (explaining and ordering things) is sent down, and fighting (Jihad-holy fighting in Allah's Cause) is mentioned (i.e. ordained) therein, you will see those in whose hearts there is a disease (of hypocrisy) looking at you with a look of one fainting to death. But it was better for them (hypocrites, to listen to Allah and to obey Him). Obedience (to Allah) and good words (were better for them) (V.47:20,21).
And as to the military discipline: Allah (swt) said in Surah As-Saff (Rows or Ranks):
Verily! Allah loves those who fight in His Cause in rows (ranks) as if they were a solid structure. (V.61:4).
Similarly the Islamic armed forces are exhorted to give their Bai'a (pledge) for; to listen and obey, in hard times and in ease, and in likeness (i.e. to listen and obey while one is active) and in dislikeness (i.e. listen and obey when one is tired). Allah (swt) said:
Verily, those who give the Bai'a (pledge) to you (O Muhammad), they are (in fact) giving the Bai'a (pledge) to Allah. (V.48: 10).
And Allah (swt) praised those who are true to (their) covenant and who fulfill their covenant, by His Statement:
Among the believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah, [i.e. they have gone out for Jihad (holy fighting), and showed not their backs to the disbelievers], of them some have fulfilled their obligations, (i.e. have been martyred) and some still are waiting, but they have never changed [i.e. they never proved treacherous to their covenant which they concluded with Allah] in the least. (V.33:23).
And He ordered the believers to take a firm stand against the enemy when you (believers) meet their force, and to remember Allah go­(much) at the time of horror, as He said:
O you who believe! When you meet (an enemy) for take a firm stand against them and remember the Name of Allah much (both with tongue and mind), so that you may be successful (V.8:45).
And He (Allah swt) encouraged the Mujahidin in His Cause to take a firm stand without any(kind)of fear and to display true bravery (against the enemy) from the start of the battle to the end- as He said:
So when you meet (in fight-Jihad in Allah's Cause) those who disbelieve, smite at their necks till you have killed and wounded many of them, then bind a bond firmly (on them i.e. take them as captives). Thereafter is the time for) either generosity (i.e. free them without ransom) or ransom (according to what benefits Islam), until war lays down its burdens... (V.47:4)
And don't be weak in the pursuit of the enemy; if you are suffering (hardships) then surely they (too) are suffering (hardships) as you are suffering, but you have a hope from Allah (for the Reward i.e. Paradise) that for which they hope not. (V.4:104).
And many a Prophet (i e many from amongst the Prophets) fought (in Allah's Cause) and along with them (fought) large bands of religious learned men. But they never lost heart for that which did befall them in Allah's Way, nor did they weaken, nor degrade themselves. And Allah loves the patient ones. (V.3: 146).
Similarly, He ordered (the Mujahidun)to have confidence, to keep their composure and to expel (from their minds) all wrong conceptions, weakness and sadness- as He said:
So do not become weak (against your enemy), nor be sad, and you will be superior (in victory), if you are indeed (true) believers (V.3:139).
And Allah (swt) informed that He has given a guarantee of victory to those who will defend Allah's Religion (true Islam). And there is no consideration for the number of men or for the equipment with weapons but (the most important thing) is: The true faith in Allah (swt) and that the victory is (always) from Allah (swt), as Allah (swt) said:
If Allah helps you, none can overcome you, and if He forsakes you, who is there after Him that can help you? And in Allah (Alone) let believers put their trust. (V.3: 1 60).
l How often a small group overcame a mighty host by Allah's leave? And Allah is with the patient. (V.2:249).
O you who believe! If you help (in the cause of) Allah, He will help you and make your foothold firm. (V.47:7)
And, verily Our Word has gone forth of old for Our slaves, - Messengers, that they verily would be made triumphant. And that Our hosts, they verily would be victors (V.37:171‑173).
... And (as for) the believers it was incumbent upon Us to help (them). (V.30:47).
Similarly Qur'an points out the well‑known fact that the battle (is) by turns, (one) day (victory) is for you-(the other) day (victory) is for others-as Allah (swt) said:
If a wound (and killing) has touched you, be sure a similar wound (and killing) has touched the others. And so are the days (good and not so good), We give to men by turns... (V.3:140).
And He made "the mutual consultation" as one of the legal foundations in order to make an exact decision, particularly in important makers like Jihad and dealing with enemies, etc. and He praised His believers- slaves for this quality by His Statement:
And who (conduct) their affairs by mutual consultaion (V.42:38).
And in spite of the perfection of the intelligence of Allah's Messenger (pbuh) and along with his being helped by Divine Inspiration still Allah ordered him (saying):
... And consult them in the affairs... (V.3:159)
So that his followers may follow his example after him.
Similarly the Qur'an warned (the believers) from committing sins (both in open and in secret) small sins or great sins... and He informed them that Allah's Help does not descend upon the disobedient sinners:
Those of you who turned back on the day the two hosts met (i.e. battle of Uhud), it was Satan who caused them to backslide (run away from the battlefield) because of some (sins) they had earned... (V.3:155).
Allah has absolutely forbidden any dispute on any matter concerning the fighting (battle) and to be always in complete agreement (about it), and informed them that the dispute is the reason for the failure and the losing of the strength and kingdom:
... And do not dispute (with one another) lest you lose courage and your strength depart, and be patient. Surely Allah is with those who are patient (V.8:46).
And to beware of fleeing from the enemy during the (battle), and it is one of the biggest sins and its committers (the defeated ones) are threatened with crushing punishments:
O you who believe! When you meet those who disbelieve in a battlefield, never turn your backs to them. (V.8:15).
And whosoever turns his back to them on such a day, unless it be a stratagem of war, or to retreat to a troop (of his own) -he indeed has drawn upon himself the wrath from Allah. And his abode is Hell, worst indeed is that destination! (V.8:16).
Allah (swt) forbade Al‑Ghulul (stealing from the war booty before its distribution) i.e. the taking (a part) of war booty illegally, and warned the Muslims with an extreme warning. And that person who takes it, shall bring it forth (on the day of Resurrection) carrying it over his back and neck, being tortured by its heavy burden and weight, terrified with its voice, rebuked for his dishonesty in front of all the witnesses (mankind and the present ones):
It is not for any Prophet to take illegally a part of booty (Ghulul), and whosoever deceives his companions as regards the booty, he shall bring forth on the Day of Resurrection that which he took (illegally). Then every person shall be paid in full what he has earned,- and they shall not be dealt with unjustly. (V.3:161).
Similarly one should be cautious, not to fight (with the intention) to show off, or for good reputation or for dignity, or for pride and haughtiness, or for the clamour (noise) of nationalism and for false­forged slogans. Whenever the Messenger (pbuh) appointed a Commander‑in‑Chief for an army unit, he used to advise him specially to be afraid and dutiful to Allah, and to be good to those Muslims who were accompanying him. He then used to say (to that Commander):
"Invade in the Name of Allah (swt) and forthe Cause of Allah (swt) and kill those who disbelieve in Allah (swt).
Invade and do not press heavily by exceeding the limits, and do not betray, and do not kill children...."
And he (the Prophet pbuh) used to say to his companions when they intended invasion:
"Proceed in the Name of Allah (swt) and for Allah (swt) upon the Religion of Allah's Messenger (pbuh). Do not kill the very old or a child or a woman and do not press heavily by exceeding the limits. Collect the (war) booty, reconcile, and do good as Allah loves the good-doers."
For that, the Messenger (pbuh) and those who believed in him were tried with pleasant trials (martyrdom or mighty reward) to make victorious this religion (Islam) and to invite others for it (Islam). So Allah assisted them with victory, sent down upon them tranquillity and helped them with angels and united their hearts and cast terror into the hearts of their enemies.
So they fought in the Cause of Allah (for) Islamic faith (worshipping none but Allah Alone) and sincerely (for Allah's sake) and to make victorious Allah'sReligion till it becomes superior over all religions, and mankind is brought out -- (1) from the darkness into the light, (2) from the worshipping of the slaves (created false gods) to the worshipping of AIIah Alone (the only true God), (3) from the distress of the world to its wideness (ease) and (4) from the injustices of the religions to the justice of Islam. They knew well that Allah has guaranteed them victory and promised them that they will be the conquerors. So they were sure of Allah's Support, and of His Messenger's promise and considered the matter easy with a small or great (number) and thought little of the fears and dangers. They remembered the Statement of Allah Law:
If Allah helps you, none can overcome you ... (V.3: 160)
And that they are troops of Allah (swt), and that they are fighting in Allah's Cause, and surely Allah (swt) will help and support them and will defeat their enemies, as their enemies fight for the cause of Satan.
Here is the example of Umar bin Al‑Khattab (raa) as he consulted his companions regarding sending troops to 'Iraq (for participating in the battle of Nahawand). 'Ali bin Abi Talib (raa) said to him ('Umar): "O Chief of the believers! This matter cannot be "victory or defeat" because of a great number, or a small number but it is His (Allah's) Religion which He has made superior and His troops which he has honoured and supported (them) with the angels till it reached (far) what it has reached. We have been promised (victory) by Allah, and Allah fulfills His Promise and supports His troops."
And here is the example of Khalid bin Walid as he came from 'Iraq, a man from the Arab Christians said to Khalid: "How great is the number of Romans and how small is the number of Muslims? Khalid replied: Woe to you! Do you make me afraid of the Romans?... But the greatness of the troops are with victory and the smallness of the troops are with defeat, not with the number of men, by Allah I wish if the red ones (i.e. the camels and the horses) are cured from their journey hurts, I will proceed to attack them (Romans) even if their number is doubled. (The hoofs of his horse had chafed and received injuries during its return form 'Iraq to Al‑Madina)."
They used to endanger their lives, used to do wonders and extraordinary deeds being sure of Allah's Help, depending upon Hls Promise as it happened in the Islamic army under the commandership of Said bin Abi Waqqas. He stood in front of the town of Al‑Midian and could not find any ship or boat (it became completely impossible for him to find anything of that sort) and the water of the river Tigris ('Iraq) increased tremendously with overflooding (its water became dark) and it overthrew its foam from excessive water in it. Sa'd addressed the people (troops) over its bank (saying): "I have resolved to cross this sea (great river) in order to assault them (the enemy)." They (the people) replied: "May Allah direct us and you to follow the right path. So please do it." Then he (Sa'd) rushed heedlessly into the (river) Tigris with his horse and all the people (his troops) too rushed heedlessly into it (Tigris) and not a single man remained behind from him; so they marched over it as if they were marching over the surface of the earth, till they filled it (the space) between its two banks and one could not see the water surface from the cavalry and the foot‑soldiers. The people spoke to one another over the surface of water as they used to speak to one another over the surface of earth. So when the Persians (army) saw them they said: Diwana... Diwana, i.e. mad people... mad people). By Allah! You are not fighting against human beings, but against jinns." On that Sa'd (raa) started saying: "Allah is Sufficient for us and He is the Best Disposer (for our affairs); by Allah! Surely Allah (swt) will give victory to His friends; verily, Allah will make superior His Religion, and verily Allah will defeat (over power) His enemy, as long as there are neither adulterers nor committers of those (similar evil) sins in the army (Sa'd's troops), then the good deeds will overcome the evil."
Yes! They (the Muslims) used to be afraid: (1) of their sins and (2) from the disobedience of Allah (swt), more than they used to be afraid of their enemy or their enemy's great number and mighty weapons, as we find 'Umar bin Al‑Khattab (raa) saying: (in his letter to the Commander S'ad bin Abi Waqqas, when he sent him for the conquest of Persia):
"...Then after, I order you and all that troops that are along with you to be obedient to Allah in all circumstances as this (being obedient to Allah swt) is better than the weapons against the enemy and a strong stratagem (device) in the war. I order you and the soldiers who are with you to be more cautious and afraid of your own crimes and sins (and not to commit them) than your enemy, as the crimes and sins of the soldiers are more dangerous to them than their enemy. The Muslims are victorious only because their enemies are disobedient to Allah, and had it not been so, we have no power over them, because neither our number is equal to their number, nor our weapons are like theirs. If we commit crimes and sins as they do, then they (our enemies) will have superiority over us in power. And if we will not gain victory over them by our merits, we do not overpower them by our strength. And you should also know that in this marching of yours (for Allah's Cause) there are guards (angels) upon you from Allah (swt) (to watch you), and they know all what you do. So be shy from them and do not commit Allah's disobedience (crimes and sins) while you are going in Allah's Cause and do not say: 'Our enemy is worse than us, so they will not overpower us.' Perhaps some people who are worse than the others may overpower the others as the (disbelievers) Magians overpowered the Children of Israel when they (the latter) involved themselves with Allah's disobedience (crimes and sins). So they (disbelievers, Magians) entered the very innermost parts of their homes and it was a promise (completely) fulfilled. And ask Allah (swt) the assistance over your ownselves, (to save you from crimes and sins) just as you ask Allah for the victory over your enemies... I ask Allah (swt) for that, both for you and for us."
So the Muslim warriors (Al‑Mujahidin) kept on clinging to what this rightly guided caliph ('Umar) mentioned (as above): And they (Mujahidin) were as they were described by a Roman to a Roman Chief; (he said): I have come to you from the men, very precise in their manners; they ride swift race‑horses, during the night they worship (Allah Alone) in seclusion,during the day they are cavaliers, if you speak to your companions something, your friend will not understand anything from you because of the high tone of their voices reciting the Qur'an and the mentioning much of Allah." So he (the Roman Chief) looked at his companions and said: "It has come to you from them that for which you have no power."
And here is the story of 'Uqbah bin Nafi': He ('Uqbah) intended to take a place (town) in Africa, so as to be a place for the Muslim army and to protect their families and properties from revolt against them by the natives ofthe country. So he betook himself to the place of Al‑Qirwan, and it was a muddy place, full of every kind of beasts of prey (lions, tigers, leopards, etc.) and snakes and others, etc. So he ('Uqbah) invoked Allah (swt) and Allah answered to his invocatio, he then said: "O snakes and wild beasts of prey! We are the companions of Allah's Messenger (Muhammad pbuh) go away from us as we are landing here, and afterwards if we found any (of you wild beasts and snakes) we will kill you." So the people saw that day, the (wild) animals and snakes carrying their offspring, shifting from that place... And a great number of natives (Al‑Bar‑Bar) saw (all) that and embraced Islam.
And when the term (time limit) was prolonged for the Muslims and their hearts were hardened and they forgot their religion and became ignorant of the fact (that for what purpose Allah (swt) has sent and chosen them from among the great number of mankind and from the great number of nations of the earth. Allah (swt) said:
You [true believers in Islamic Monotheism, and real followers of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and his Sunna (legal ways, etc.)] are the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind, you enjoin Al‑Ma 'ruf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam has ordained) and forbid what is Al‑Munkar (polytheism, disbelief and all that Islam has forbidden), and you believe in Allah (V.3:1 10)
So (today) they (Muslims) are leading a life of the one who knows not any Prophet, nor believes in any Divine Message or Divine Inspiration, nor expects any reckoning nor is afraid of the Hereafter. They (Muslims) resemble the pre‑Islamic ignorant nations, against whom they used to fight in the past. They have turned on their heels (back) as apostates from Islam, they have imitated them (ignorant nations) in their civilization, in their social affairs, in their political affairs, in their character and in the pleasures of their lives. They (Muslims) also imitated them in many other things because of which Allah (swt) hated and forsook them. He (Allah) put them (Muslims) into trials under the effects of (1) Western civilization (2) and the Eastern Communist propaganda. So their land became "a free wealth" with no protector, their kingdom became a victim for every beast of prey and a food (nourishment) for every eater, and the meaning of the statement of the Prophet (Muhammad pbuh ) became apparent:
"It is expected that the nations will call other nations to share them against you (Muslims) as the eaters call each other to eat from the food in front of them in a large wooden plate." A person asked the Prophet (pbuh) will that happen because of our small number on that day? The Prophet said: "Nay! Your number (will be great, but you will be rubbish like the rubbish of flood-water. And certainly Allah will remove from the hearts of your enemies 'the fear from you' and surely He (Allah) will throw Wahn in your hearts." A person asked: What is 'Wahn', O Allah's Messenger? The Prophet (pbuh) said, 'Wahn' is to love (this) world and to hate the death."
The Prophet pbuh also said,
"If you: (1) practiced Bai'a Al‑ 'Aina (i.e. selling goods to a person for a certain price and then buying them back from him for a far less price), (2) and followed the tails of the cows (i.e. indulged in agriculture and became contented with it) (3) and deserted the Jihad (holy fighting) in Allah's Cause, Allah will cover you with humiliation and it will not be removed till you return back to your religion (Abu Daud).
And now they (Muslims) have deserted the Jihad and asked help from (their) enemies and protection from the disbelievers, begging them; turning towards them, expecting good from them. So they (Muslims) have become mean, despised before Allah in spite of their Islamic names and in spite of the presence of righteous pious persons amongst them and in spite of the fact that some of the religious laws, signs and ceremonies are practiced in their countries.
One of the orientalists said: "When the Muslims turned away from their religious teachings and became ignorant of its wisdom and its laws, and deviated towards the contradictory (man‑made) laws taken from the opinions of men, there spread in them immorality of character, falsehood, hypocrisy, ill‑will and hatefulness increased in them. Their unity disintegrated and they became ignorant of their present and future state and became unaware of what will harm them or will benefit them. They have become contented with the life in which they eat, drink, sleep and compete not with others, in superiority." AII this is a visible fact, which every true believer feels, and which every enthusiastic person (about his religion) palpates in every community (nation) that gives up Al-Jihad and dips itself; (1) in a luxurious life, (2) in the worshipping of wealth and (3) in the love of this world.
History informs us: What the most wretched (Al‑Maghool and At‑Tatar) did to the Muslims? That which will sorrow the hearts and to be as if on the fire and will make the eyes shed tears...
Ibn Al‑Athir said: "I remained for many years, avoiding the mentioning of this accident because of its great magnitude, disliking to speak about it, so that I put a foot forward and go another backward and thought deeply, who is there who can write the wailing and crying of the Muslims and who is there on whom it is easy to mention that ...wish that my mother had not delivered (brought) me... would that I had been dead before this, and had been forgotten and out of sight... This job (work) includes the mentioning of the great event and the severe calamity which made the days and the nights extremely hard and bitter (barren) that no similar calamity will happen and that did befall (cover) the mankind and particularly the Muslims." Ibn Al‑Athlr then mentioned the weaknesses of the Muslims and the empowering of their enemies over them...he said: "A woman from (the Tatars) entered a house and killed a group from its dwellers and they thought her to be a man... one of them (the Tatars) entered a street in which there were one hundred men, he went on killing them one by one, till he killed them all, and not even a single man (out of the hundred) raised his hand against him (the Tatar) to harm him and humiliation was put over the men so they did not defend themsleves neither little nor more. We take refuge with Allah (swt) from being defeated (by the enemy)." Ibn Al‑Athir further said: "One of the Tatar got hold of a man and he (Tatar) could not find any (weapon) to kill him, so he told the man: "Put your head over this stone and do not move (keep it on)"... and so the man put his head over the stone and remained there till the same man came with a sword and killed him... and there were many similar incidents"...
So it is absolutely obligatory upon the Islamic nation, and particularly upon the religious scholars and the rulers from them to be obedient to Allah (swt) and to be dutiful to Him and to settle the matters of differences amongst themselves and to propagate "The invitation to this religion (Islam) to others specially the off‑springs, publish its good aspects, and instruct (teach) the people its (Islam's) laws and wisdom as did the Muslim nobles of early days." They (Muslim nobles of early days) strove hard in Allah's Cause as they ought to have striven with sincerity and with all their efforts that His (Allah's) Name should be superior... They stood... inviting people to Allah's Religion (Islam), explained to them the good aspects and the excellence of Islam and that was the reason their kingdom was extended and their countries expanded, and they subjected others to its (Islam's) teachings. It was not long before their descendants deviated from the Right Path, tore themselves into pieces after they had one united entity, they doubted the Truth, so, for them the path was separated and they became as groups (and sects) having different (views and) opinions opposing each other in their aims... So how can they be elevated?... How can there be any progress or priority possible for them while they are following the disbelieving nations, they drag along behind them, pursue their ways and footsteps and imitate their actions, small or great.
They judge their people with the contradictory (man‑made) laws which conflict and clash with the Islamic laws, which were the origin of their honour and pride and in which was their peace and steadfastness. Allah (swt) said:
Do they then seek the judgment of (the Days of) Ignorance. And who is better in judgement than Allah for a people who have firm Faith? (V.5:50).
We beseech Allah to make victorious His Religion (Islam) and to make superior His Words and to lead all the Muslims to that in which His Pleasure is-Amin.
It is not the function of Islam to compromise with the concepts of Jahiliyya which are current in the world or to co-exist in the same land together with a jahili system. This was not the case when it first appeared in the world, nor will it be today or in the future. Jahiliyyah, to whatever period it belongs, is Jahiliyyah; that is, deviation from the worship of One Allah and the way of life prescribed by Allah.
It derives its system and laws and regulations and habits and standards and values from a source other than Allah. On the other hand, Islam is submission to Allah, and its function is to bring people away from Jahiliyyah towards Islam. Jahiliyyah is the worship of some people by others; that is to say, some people become dominant and make laws for others, regardless of whether these laws are against Allah's injunctions and without caring for the use or misuse of their authority.
Islam, on the other hand, is people's worshipping Allah alone, and deriving concepts and beliefs, laws and regulations from the authority of Allah, and freeing themselves from the servitude to Allah's servants. This is the very nature of Islam and the nature of its role on earth.
Islam cannot accept any mixing with Jahiliyyah. Either Islam will remain, or Jahiliyyah; no half-half situation is possible. Command belongs to Allah, or otherwise to Jahiliyyah; Allah's Shari'ah will prevail, or else people's desires: "And if they do not respond to you, then know that they only follow their own lusts. And who is more astray than one who follows his own lusts, without guidance from Allah? Verily! Allah guides not the people who are disobedient."[28:50]; "Do they then seek the judgement of (the Days of) Ignorance? And who is better in judgement than Allah for a people who have firm faith"[5:50].
The foremost duty of Islam is to depose Jahiliyyah from the leadership of man, with the intention of raising human beings to that high position which Allah has chosen for him. This purpose is explained by Raba'i Bin 'Amer, when he replied to the Commander in Chief of the Persian army, Rustum. Rustum asked, "For what purpose have you come?" Raba'i answered," Allah has sent us to bring anyone who wishes from servitude to men into the service of Allah alone, from the narrowness of this world into the vastness of this world and the Hereafter, from the tyranny of religions into the justice of Islam."
Sayyid Qutb on Jihad
 Before a Muslim steps into the battlefield, he has already fought a great battle within himself against Satan- against his own desires and ambitions, his personal interests and inclinations, the interests of his own family and of his nation; against anything which is not from Islam; against every obstacle which comes into the way of worshipping Allah and the implementation of the Divine authority on earth, returning this authority to Allah and taking it away from the rebellious usurpers.
Those who say that Islamic Jihad was merely for the defense of the 'home land of Islam' diminish the greatness of the Islamic way of life and consider it less important than their 'homeland'. This is not the Islamic point of view, and their view is a creation of modern age and is completely alien to Islamic consciousness. What is acceptable to Islamic consciousness is its belief, the way of life which this belief prescribes, and the society which lives according to this way of life. The soil of the homeland has, in itself, no value or weight. From the Islamic point of view, the only value which the soil can achieve is because on that soil Allah's authority is established and Allah's guidance is followed; and thus it becomes a fortress for the belief, a place for its way of life to be entitled the 'homeland of Islam', a centre for the movement for the total freedom of man.
Of course, in that case the defense of the 'homeland of Islam' is the defense of the Islamic beliefs, the Islamic way of life, and the Islamic community. However, it's defense is not the ultimate objective of the Islamic movement of Jihad but it is a mean of establishing the Divine authority within it so that it becomes the headquarters for the movement of Islam, which is then to be carried throughout the earth to the whole of mankind, as the object of this religion is all humanity and its sphere of action is the whole earth.
As we have described earlier, there are many practical obstacles in the establishing Allah's rule on earth, such as the power of state, the social system and traditions and, in general, the whole human environment. Islam uses force only to remove these obstacles so that there may not remain any wall between Islam and individual human beings, and so that it may address their hearts and minds after releasing them from these material obstacles, and then leave them free to choose to accept or reject it.
We ought not to be deceived or embarrassed by the attacks of the orientalists on the origin of Jihad, nor lose self-confidence under the pressure of present conditions and the weight of the great powers of the world to such an extent that we try to find reasons for Islamic Jihad outside the nature of this religion, and try to show that it was a defensive measure under temporary conditions. The need for Jihad remains, and will continue to remain, whether these conditions exist or not!
The World's Bravest People
By Muhammad Alshareef
The history books speak to us of another land that carried upon it believers in Allah, the army of Alb Arsalaan. Coming home from one of their battles, As they made their way home to Khuraasan, a messenger rode up to Alb Arsalaan and whispered to him: The emperor of Constantiniyya heard of your army and is bringing an army of 600 thousand to crush you - led by the war general Romanis!
By Allah they did not gather than many fighters for no other reason that to quell the fear they had of Islam, the cowardice they tasted in their hearts.
As Arsalaan swallowed the news he glanced into the eyes of every one of his 15 thousand Mujahids, knowing that there was little hope of victory. This faction nursing their wounds, another weeping over the brothers that fell, a third weeping for losing the chance of Jannah. His head drooped at the sentence the messenger had brought and then he picked his heart up like a lion.
Look brothers and sisters at the numbers. 600 thousand prepared to fight 15 thousand! Is this any physical strength that people speak of? No, by Allah, it is the strength of Iman, the strength of Aqeedah, the strength of hearts filled with certainty in Allah and His Messenger and the Final Day. Isn't that enough?
What was Arsalaan to do? Should he continue back to his home and let the forces of evil destroy his nation with their vice, Shahaawaat? Or should he stand like a rock in their face even if it meant his and his armies death?
A few moments, and the rays of Iman shone from his heart.
Arsalaan slipped into his tent and dressed himself in the towels he would be buried in, fragrancing himself with hanoot. He then addressed the entire army, saying: "Today Islam is in danger! Today Muslims are in danger! And I fear that Laa ilaaha illaa Allaah will be wiped away from our land!" He then shouted, "Waa Islaamaah! (O Islaam!!) Waa Islaamaah!! (O Islaam!!). Look at me, I have worn the towels of my coffin and have fragranced myself with hanoot. Whoever wants Jannah, let them dress as I have dressed! We are going to fight under the shade of Laa ilaaha illa Allah until we are destroyed or the flag of Laa ilaaha illaa Allah is raised!"
In moments the entire army stepped into the quarters and all 15 thousand Mujahids came out in the garments of their coffin. The fragrance of Hanoot was on all their bodies, the wind of Jannat Al firdows blew in their faces. The sky erupted with the armies shouts of `Allahu Akbar!! Allaahu Akbar!! Yaa Khayl Allah uthbuti!! Yaa Khayl Allah irkabee!!'
Allahu Akbar! Have you ever seen an army stepping onto a plain that they know - with little doubt - they will be resurrected from on the Day of Judgement? Have you ever seen an army wrapped in the thobes of their coffin before beginning the battle? Have you ever smelt the fragrance of death - Hanoot - hovering 15 thousand believers in Allah?
That day, the Kuffar did.
The armies clashed - one believing in Allah and desiring the appointment with Allah, the other disbelieving in Allah and hating to meet him. The fighting was severe, Allahu Akbar cut through the sky. Every Mujahid stepped forward, on their tongues were the words, "I am coming to you, O Allah, in haste so that you may be pleased with me."
Heads flew and skulls fell to the ground and blood flowed. As the dust clouds softened, the flag of Islam rose high, the crusaders fled in all directions. Someone shouted, "The Romans are defeated and their general - Romanis - has been captured."
Innumerable Muslims were martyred - in sha' Allah - that day, and many were left crying. They were not crying for war spoils that they lost. No, by the He who raised the heavens without any poles. They were crying because that had to take off their coffin wrap after they had sold themselves to Allah. Alb Arsalaan, stood crying, thanking Allah.
Dear brothers and sisters, this is what is written in the history books, but pick up the newspaper today and you will see it happening again.
The Romans have now been replaced by the Russians. Those Khuraasaan Muslim army of Alb Arsalaan has now been replaced by our brothers and sisters in Chechneya. A Kaafir correspondent writes about the plight our Muslims are facing:
[For the past four months, 5,000 lightly-armed Chechen warriors fighting on flat, open terrain that favours air, armour and artillery, have held off 160,000 Russian troops, backed by regiments of heavy guns and rockets, helicopter gunships, ground attack aircraft, and thousands of tanks and armoured vehicles. Russia's generals have repeatedly vowed to "exterminate" the Chechen. All Chechen males from 6-65 are being thrown into concentration camps.
Chechen mujahedin, most without any formal military training, have no heavy weapons and are chronically short of radios, anti-tank rockets and even small-arms ammunition. There is almost no medicine or morphine for their wounded, and no shelter from massive Russian bombardment that includes banned fuel air explosives, toxic gas, and napalm. If taken alive by the Russians, they will be tortured, then executed.
In the first Chechen war, 1994-96, Russia killed over a 100,000 Chechen civilians, razed much of the small country, and, in an act of monumental terrorism, scattered 17 million anti-personnel land mines across the tiny nation. Russia was driven from Chechnya in 1996, but its hardliners and communists vowed to "exterminate the Chechen bandits." Their man Putin's first act as president was to declare a crusade - blessed by the Russian Orthodox Church - against Chechnya. Moscow demanded revenge for 1996 and for defeat at the hands of Muslim mujahedin in Afghanistan.While Russian troops fought their way into Grozny, elite Russian forces were pushing into the southern mountains. Chechen units are battling ferociously, under intense shelling and bombing, to defend the strategic Shatoi and Vedeno gorges. Outnumbered 20-1, the Chechens' defend the mountain passes]
Allah questions us all sitting here in this Masjid: [but if they seek your aid in (the name) of the Deen (al-Islam), it is your duty to help them,] surah Anfal, 8, 72. Have you heard, dear brothers and sisters, the word of one of the Muslim defenders of Chechneya:
"At a time when the world has left us entirely, we ask Muslims around the world not to forget the ordeal of their brothers in Chechnya fighting jihad against Russian oppression."
Allah ta'ala revealed: [And never think of those who have been killed in the cause of Allah as dead. Rather, they are alive with their Lord, receiving provision.] - 3, 169.
When Jaabir's (RAA) father was martyred on the day of Uhud, he sat over his slain body and uncovered the sheet from his face and weeped. He narrates, "The Companions forbade me of my excessive weeping, but Rasul Allah did not say anything. He then said, `Do not cry for him, for verily the angels shaded him with their wings until (his soul) was raised to the heavens.'" - Tafseer ibn Katheer and Zaad Al-Ma'aad, 6/p.33.
Rasul Allah - Sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam - later told him, "Allah raised your father and spoke to him directly! And told him, `My slave, ask whatever you want!'" - Hasan, narrated by Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah.
Abdullah (RAA) was asked about that verse [And never think of those who have been killed in the cause of Allah as dead. Rather, they are alive with their Lord, receiving provision.] He said: We asked the same question to Rasul Allah - Sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam - and he told us, "the souls (of the Shuhaadaa') are in the bodies of green birds with nests hanging from the Throne (of Allah). They travel (back and forth) in Paradise as they wish, then they return to their nests. Allah looked towards them and asked, `Do you wish for anything?' They said, `What else shall we desire when we are allowed to travel (back and forth) in Paradise as we wish.' Allah allows them to go and come three times and repeats the question every time. When they realize that they must ask for something, they say, `O Allah! Return our souls to our bodies so that we may return to the Dunya and be martyred again!' - Ibn Katheer
Dear brothers and sisters, for what reason was this reward so high, the highest honor in Islam. To understand, all one must do is look and experience the fear and pain and blood that Muslims go through in this path. In Chechneya, the Muslim soldiers are being sodomized, raped by the Russians. And often, they make them rape themselves. They do this to entire villages, arresting up to 700 seniors, young men, and young boys, beating them, torturing them, murdering them, just to filter out 7 Mujaahideen they claim.
You may have seen the pictures of our brothers being dragged on their naked bodies by Russian tanks to their death. Those are not random people, that is your mother and father, your brother and sister, your son and daughter. When their leg is blown off, it is your leg that was amputated. When their mother is raped, it is your mother that was raped. When their throats are slit, it is your throat that was slit. The Muslims are one, ONE, body!
[And what is (the matter) with you that you fight not in the cause of Allah and (for) the oppressed among men, women, and children who say, "Our Lord, take us out of this city of oppressive people and appoint for us from Yourself a protector and appoint for us from Yourself a helper.] - Suran 4, 75.
A friend of mine spoke to the son of a Muslim family that had left Canada to live amongst the struggles of their brothers and sisters in one of the boiling Muslim countries. He asked that little boy, "Aren't you afraid your father will be killed when he goes for Jihad?" That little boy understood the issue when he replied, "I am not scared, because Baba promised that if he dies Shaheed he's going to take us to Jannah with him."
Part II
When I was young, I listened to a clip of a speech in which the Shaykh concluded, "Verily I was eaten the day the white bull was eaten." It stuck in my mind those words, and years later someone explained it to me.
There once lived three bulls, a white bull, a black bull, and a red bull. Looking for food, a lion watched them graze together and realized he could not contend with all three. So he went to the black and red bull and made a deal with them. He told them that he was very ferocious and powerful and that if they let him eat the white bull, he would leave them in peace. The black and red bull agreed, and the lion murdered and then ate the white bull.
Time passed and the lion became hungry again. He went to the red bull and argued that he was ferocious and powerful and that if he let him eat the black bull he would leave him in peace. The red bull agreed and the lion murdered and then ate the black bull.
As time passed and the lion became hungry, he visited the red bull again. As the red bull saw death in the lions eye, as the teeth dug deep into it's neck, it shouted, "Verily I was eaten the day the white bull was eaten!"
[And they will continue to fight you until they make you turn back on your Deen (al-Islam) if they can.]
Many people justify having a television in their house, surround sound, leather couches with a satellite dish connection so that they can watch the news. I ask you dear brothers and sisters, where are these Muslims when they see what they see on that news. Have they come forward to tell us where Chechneya is on the map? Have they told us of what is happening? Have they stood in all seriousness - Iman shining - to make a difference?
Or did they watch and then change the channel to pass time on a basketball game?
In the month of Safar, 4 years after Hijrah, Abu Baraa' Aamir ibn Maalik came to Madinah to meet Rasul Allah - Sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam. Rasul Allah invited him to Islam, but he refused. He requested however that Rasul Allah send some scholars to teach them about Islam, perhaps his tribe may be guided. Rasul Allah - Sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam - said, "I fear for them from the people of Najd." He said, "I shall protect them." Rasul Allah - Sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam - sent 70 of the most knowledgeable Sahaabah, Al-Mundhir ibn `Amr was their Ameer. They traveled until they arrived at Bi'r Ma'oonah (the Well of Ma'oonah). From there they sent Haraam ibn Malhaan with the message of Rasul Allah to Aamir ibn At-Tufayl. When Aamir received the letter, he did not read it. He merely winked to someone. From the back Rasul Allah's messenger was speared through his entire back. He shouted in his last words, "By the lord of the Ka'bah I have won!" Aamir then called for the assitance of some tribes, and Usayyah, Ri'l, and Dhakwaan answered his vile request. They ambushed the companions waiting at the well of Ma'oonah and slit all their throats.
For an entire month, Rasul Allah - after Ruku' in Salat Al-Maghrib - would raise his hand in Qanoot, seeking the curse of Allah upon those people.
In the Qanoot Rasul Allah prayed: [O Allah forgive the believers, men and women. And the Muslims, men and women. Join their hearts, correct that which is between them, and grant them victory over their enemies and Your enemies. O Allah! Curse the Kuffar of the people of the book, those that disbelieve in Your Messengers, and fight your beloved ones. O Allah! Divide their word, shake the earth from under their feet, and rain upon them your wrath which the criminals can never repel. In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful. O Allah! We seek your help!] - AlBaihaqi in AsSunan AlKubra.
If Rasul Allah - Sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam - heard of what is happening to our Ummah in Chechneya, ask yourself, what would he do? And what would he expect from you? Are you waiting for Rasul Allah - Sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam - to come and carry the banner? Listen:
[Muhammad in nothing but a Messenger. (Other) Messengers have passed on before him. So if he was to die or be killed, would you turn back on your heels. And he who turns back on his heels will never harm Allah at all; but Allah will reward the grateful.] - 3, 144.
What can we do?
We should follow authentic news coming from Chechneya. One of the best places to get that news is from the Muslim Website: Encourage others to read from there and link to that page on your own websites.
Learn about what is happening and teach as many people as you can of the situation, causing a stir of authentic and unbiased information.
Boycott any companions that come from Russia, and any products that come from Russia.
And at the least - something that if we do not do . Allah only knows to what low our Iman has dropped - we must make Dua for our brothers, praying to Allah to curse the Kafir Russian Army as Rasul Allah - Sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam - cursed the tyrants involved in the murder of the Muslims at Bi'r Ma'oonah.
O Allah! destroy the Russian army.
O Allah! Make the ground shake in an earthquake from under them.
O Allah, they do not glorify you, show them the blackest day of their lives, as you showed the People of Aad and Thamud.
O Allah, destroy them all, not leaving anyone to escape.
O Allah make their wives widows, their children orphans.
O Allah! Grant victory to our brothers and sisters in Chechneya and everywhere in the world, Yaa Allah!
O Allah! Have mercy on their widowed women and their orphaned children!
O Allah! Whoever died from them, enter them into Jannat Al-Firdows with your Mercy!
O Allah! Forgive us, forgive us, forgive us, for doing nothing but watch.
Allahumma Hal Ballaght. Allaahumma fashhad.
By Hasan al-Banna
In the name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful. Praise be to Allah, and may his peace and blessings be upon Muhammad and upon his household and companions, and all those who follow him.
The Muslim world today is faced with tyranny and injustice. Indeed oppression and hardship is not just limited to the Muslim world, rather many non-Muslim states are subject to oppression at the hands of the world’s leading military and economic powers. Anyone who cares can only be saddened and hurt by the pain and suffering that accompanies so many faces. Islam has allowed jihad as a means to prevent oppression, yet the Muslims have forgotten this for too long.
Though jihad may be a part of the answer to the problems of the ummah, it is an extremely important part. Jihad is to offer ourselves to Allah for His Cause. Indeed, every person should according to Islam prepare himself/herself for jihad and every person should eagerly and patiently wait for the day when Allah will call them to show their willingness to sacrifice their lives. We should all ask ourselves if there is a quicker way to heaven? It is with this in mind that this booklet is being published.
It may be asked of ourselves and others here as to why we remain in this country while there is so much opportunity for reward. It is our understanding that today’s problems does not require the one solution whether this be jihad, working for the khilafah, purifying ourselves etc. but rather our situation today requires action on all fronts. Everybody has a role to play in today’s great jigsaw, those who are attempting to establish the Islamic state have to continue doing so focusing their minds onto such a project, those who are faced with tyranny at the hands of neighbouring armies have to defend themselves with their lives and those that have the opportunity of giving Islam to the world should do so..
This is an important booklet for three reasons: firstly, it deals with an important issue - that of jihad. Secondly, it is important because it has been written by one of the most prominent Mujahideen of this century - Imam Hasan al-Banna, and thirdly it is important because it deals with an issue that the ummah seems to have misunderstood or forgotten.
Imam Hasan al-Banna is the founder of the Muslim Brotherhood and one of the pioneers of today’s Islamic revival. It is a shame that so many people are unaware of this man and his contribution towards what we see today. It is the right of the contemporary Muslim generation that they should have access to the writings of this great reformer; especially on this important topic.
The Imam, may Allah bless him, shows us that ultimately, and insha’Allah (God-willing) time will be a witness to this, only Islam can save mankind from itself. And jihad on the individual and international scale will be a necessary part of this process of change.
The Imam himself was assassinated in 1949, aged 43 years. It is a testimony to his character that Allah answered his duaa’ that he made at the end of this work. May Allah accept our efforts and may Allah similarly accept and answer our duaa’.
 Dr A. M. A. Fahmy
International Islamic Forum
In the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate
All praise is for Allah, the Lord of the Universe. May Allah bestow peace and blessings upon our Leader Muhammad, Leader of those who strive in Allah's way and Imam of the pious. May He also bestow peace and blessings upon his family and his companions, and all those who strive for the Sharee’ah until the Day of Judgement.
All Muslims Must Make Jihad
Jihad is an obligation from Allah on every Muslim and cannot be ignored nor evaded. Allah has ascribed great importance to jihad and has made the reward of the martyrs and the fighters in His way a splendid one. Only those who have acted similarly and who have modelled themselves upon the martyrs in their performance of jihad can join them in this reward. Furthermore, Allah has specifically honoured the Mujahideen with certain exceptional qualities, both spiritual and practical, to benefit them in this world and the next. Their pure blood is a symbol of victory in this world and the mark of success and felicity in the world to come.
Those who can only find excuses, however, have been warned of extremely dreadful punishments and Allah has described them with the most unfortunate of names. He has reprimanded them for their cowardice and lack of spirit, and castigated them for their weakness and truancy. In this world, they will be surrounded by dishonour and in the next they will be surrounded by the fire from which they shall not escape though they may possess much wealth. The weaknesses of abstention and evasion of jihad are regarded by Allah as one of the major sins, and one of the seven sins that guarantee failure.
Islam is concerned with the question of jihad and the drafting and the mobilisation of the entire Umma into one body to defend the right cause with all its strength than any other ancient or modern system of living, whether religious or civil. The verses of the Qur'an and the Sunnah of Muhammad (PBUH) are overflowing with all these noble ideals and they summon people in general (with the most eloquent expression and the clearest exposition) to jihad, to warfare, to the armed forces, and all means of land and sea fighting.
We shall not go into exhaustive detail but rather will offer you some Qur'anic verses and Ahaadeeth below as examples since we only wish to show a glimpse of the Islamic message on jihad. Furthermore, we will not delve into the explanation of the Qur'anic verses or Ahaadeeth. You will recognise by the purity of language, the clarity of exposition, the lucidity of ideas and the force of spirituality that explanations and clarifications are not required.
The Qur’an on Jihad
‘Jihad is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike something which is good for you and that you like something which is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not know.’
(Surat-al-Baqarah (2), ayah 216)
‘O you who believe! Be not like those who disbelieve (hypocrites) and who say to their brethren when they travel through the earth or go out to fight: 'If they had stayed with us, they would not have died or been killed,' so that Allah may make it a cause of regret in their hearts. It is Allah that gives life and causes death. And Allah is All-Seer of what you do. And if you are killed or die in the Way of Allah, forgiveness and mercy from Allah are far better than all that they amass (of worldly wealth etc.). And whether you die, or are killed, verily, unto Allah you shall be gathered.’
(Surat-aal-Imran (3), ayah 156-158)
Notice how "forgiveness" and "mercy" are associated with slaying and death in Allah's way in the first verse, and how the second verse is does not refer to this because it is devoid of the idea of jihad. In this verse, there is an indication of the fact that cowardice is one of the characteristics of unbelievers, but not of believers. And notice how today the unbelievers seem to be brave and the believers seem to be the cowards.
‘Think not of those who are killed in the Way of Allah as dead. Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision. They rejoice in what Allah has bestowed upon them of His Bounty, rejoicing for the sake of those who have not yet joined them, but are left behind (not yet martyred) that on them no fear shall come, nor shall they grieve.’
(Surat-aal-Imran (3), ayah 169-170). Refer up to verse 175 for further information.
‘Let those (believers) who sell the life of this world for the Hereafter fight in the cause of Allah., and whosoever fights in the Cause of Allah, and is killed or is victorious, We shall bestow on him a great reward.’
(Surat-an-Nisaa’ (4), ayah 74)
Refer to the verses (4: 71-78) in the Noble Book to understand how Allah urges the Muslims to remain alert and to acquire experience in warfare, in armies and troops, or as individuals, as circumstances may dictate. Allah also reprimands those who are slack, cowards or opportunists, and He arouses our zeal to protect the weak and prevent oppression. Notice how Allah associates warfare with prayer and fasting, establishing it as one of the pillars of Islam. And how He refutes the false arguments of the waverers, and encourages those who are scared to the utmost degree to plunge into battle and to face death unflinchingly and bravely, showing them that they will welcome death, and that if they die in jihad, they will receive the most magnificent recompense for their lives, and that they will not lose any of their contribution or sacrifice however small.
Surat-al-Anfaal is in its entirety an exhortation to jihad and a command to remain steadfast [while engaged] in it, as well as a clear presentation of many of its rules. It is for this reason that the first Muslims (may Allah's grace be upon them) adopted it as a war chant which they would chant whenever their apprehensions mounted and the battle grew grim. Suffice it to quote what Allah (SWT) says:
‘Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies of Allah and your enemies.’
(Surat-al-Anfaal (8), ayah 60)
up to His words (SWT):
‘O Prophet! Urge the believers to fight. If there are twenty steadfast amongst you, they will overcome two hundred, and if there are be a hundred steadfast they will overcome a thousand of those who disbelieve, because they (they disbelievers) are people who do not understand’
(Surat-al-Anfaal (8), ayah 65)
Surat-at-Tawbah too is in its entirety an exhortation to combat and a clear presentation of its rules. It is sufficient to quote what Allah (SWT) says concerning warfare against the treacherous polytheists:
‘Fight against them so that Allah will punish them by your hands and disgrace them and give you victory over them and return calmness in the hearts of the believing people thus relieving their anxiety. Allah accepts the repentance of whom He wills. Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.’
(Surat-at-Tawbah (9), ayah 14-15)
And His words (SWT) concerning fighting with People of the Book:
‘Fight against those who believe not in Allah nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger and those who acknowledge not the Religion of Truth (i.e. Islam), from among the People of the Book, until they pay the jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.’
(Surat-at-Tawbah (9), ayah 29)
The proclamations of the general call in the following verses, end with His words (SWT):
‘March forth, (whether equipped) lightly or heavily, and strive hard with your wealth and your lives in the Cause of Allah! This is better for you, if you but knew.’
(Surat-at-Tawbah (9), ayah 41)
Allah then rebukes those who are cowardly for their attitude and their continuous attempts to escape from jihad, in His words (SWT):
‘Those who stayed away (from Tabuk expedition) rejoiced in their staying behind the Messenger of Allah; they hated to strive and fight with their wealth and their lives in the Cause of Allah, and they said, 'March not forth in the heat.' Say: 'The fire of Hell is more intense in heat,' if only they could understand!' So let them laugh a little (and they will) cry much as a recompense of what they used to earn (by committing sins). If Allah brings you back to a party of them, and they ask your permission to go out (to fight), say: 'Never shall you go out with me, nor fight an enemy with me: you agreed to sit inactive on the first occasion: then you sit (now) with those who lag behind.’
(Surat-at-Tawbah (9), ayah 81-83)
Then Allah praises those who engage in jihad by declaring jihad as Prophet Muhammad's mission and the way of his Companions, as He, the Almighty, says:
‘But the Messenger, and those who believed with him, strove hard and fought with their wealth and their lives (in Allah's cause). The good things are for these people, and it is they who will be successful. For them Allah has got ready the Gardens (Paradise) under which rivers flow, to dwell therein forever. That is the supreme success.’
(Surat-at-Tawbah (9), ayah 88-89)
Then follows an oath of allegiance, comprehensive and protective leaving no excuses, in His words (SWT):
‘Verily, Allah has purchased of the believers their lives and their wealth; for the price that theirs shall be the Paradise. They fight in Allah's Cause, so they kill (others) and are killed. It is a promise in truth which is binding on Him in the Torah and the Gospel and the Qur'an. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah? Then rejoice in the bargain which you have concluded. That is the supreme success.’
(Surat-at-Tawbah (9), ayah 111)
Surat-al-Qital (commonly known as Surat Muhammad) mentions two key factors that form the foundation of the military spirit: obedience and discipline. Allah has summarised these two factors in the following two verses in His Book. Obedience appears in this Surah where He, the Almighty, says:
‘Those who believe say: "Why is a Surah not sent down (for us)?" But when a decisive Surah (explaining and ordering things) is sent down, and fighting is mentioned (i.e. ordained) therein, you will see those in whose hearts is a disease (of hypocrisy) looking at you with a look of one fainting to death. But it was better for them (hypocrites, to listen to Allah and obey Him). Obedience (to Allah) and good words (were better for them). And when the matter (preparation for Jihad) is resolved on, then if they had been true to Allah, it would have been better for them.’
(Surat-Muhammad (47), ayah 20-21)
As for discipline, it appears in Surat-as-Saff, where He, the Almighty, says:
‘Verily, Allah loves those who fight in His Cause in rows (ranks), as if they were a solid structure.’
(Surat-as-Saff (61), ayah 4)
Surat-al-Fath is also dedicated in its entirety to one of the military campaigns of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH), and was a special occasion of jihad, which took place under the shadow of a tree where an oath of allegiance unto steadfastness and death was taken, and this bore the fruit of tranquillity and victory. This is what He (SWT), says:
‘Indeed, Allah was pleased with the believers when they gave their bay’ah (pledge) to you (O Muhammad) under the Tree, He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down As-Sakeenah (calmness and tranquillity) upon them; and He rewarded them with a close Victory; And abundant spoils that they will capture. And Allah is Ever All-Mighty, All-Wise.’
(Surat-al-Fath (48), ayah 18-19)
These, brother, are some examples of the Qur’anic references on jihad. Its virtues are made clear, and those who do jihad are given the good news of the magnificent reward that will be waiting for them. The Book of Allah is filled with examples like these, and anyone who reads the Qur’an and pays attention to its meaning will be astounded at the negligence of the Muslims who have failed to take advantage of this reward.
The Ahaadeeth on Jihad
On the authority of Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: ‘I heard the Prophet (PBUH) say:
‘By the One in whose Hands is my soul, had it not been for the limitation of resources which caused some of the companions to remain behind (much to their displeasure), I would not have prevented any group from striving in Allah’s way. And by the One in whose hand is my Soul, I wish I could be killed in the Way of Allah, then live again so that I may be killed again, then live again so that again I may be killed, then live again so that again I may be killed.’ (Transmitted by Al Bukhari and Muslim)
On the authority of Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: ‘The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
‘By the One in whose Hand is my Soul, no one is wounded in Allah's way, and Allah knows best who is wounded in His way, except that the colour of his wound appears on the day of judgement as the colour of blood and his scent appears as the scent of musk.’
On the authority of Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: ‘My paternal uncle Anas bin al Nadir was absent from the battle of Badr, and he said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, I was absent from the first battle in which you fought the polytheists but if Allah provides me with a second opportunity to participate in a battle with the polytheists, then Allah will witness my actions!’ And when the Day of Uhud arrived and the Muslims retreated, he said: ‘O Allah, I ask you to forgive my brothers for their actions and I excuse myself from the actions of the polytheists!’ Then he rushed forward and met Sa'd bin Mu’aadh and said: ‘O Sa’d bin Mu’aadh, by Allah I smell its scent from below Uhud!’. Sa'd said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, I could not do what he did.’ Anas said: ‘We found him with some eighty wounds either from swords, spears or arrows. We found him murdered and mutilated by the polytheists. No one recognised him except his sister, and even she recognised him by his fingers.’ Anas said: ‘We used to think, or suppose, that this verse came down concerning him and people like him: ‘Among the believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah..’ up to the end of the verse (Surat al-Ahzaab (33), ayah 23).’. (Transmitted by Al Bukhari)
On the authority of Umm Haritha bint Suraaqah; she went to the Prophet (PBUH), and said: ‘O Prophet of Allah, can you tell me about Haritha (a stray arrow had struck him before the day of Badrý)? For if he is in Paradise, I will bear his loss patiently. But if he is not there, I shall weep for him’. He said:
‘O mother of Haritha, there are many gardens in Paradise and your son is in Firdaws (the highest level)...’ (reported by Al Bukhari)
Brother, see how Paradise made these companions forget their cares and misfortunes, and enabled them to persevere even through adversities.
On the authority of 'Abdullah bin Abi Awfa, may Allah be pleased with him,: ‘The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
‘Let it be known that Paradise lies in the shadows of the swords.’ (reported by the Al Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Dawud)
On the authority of Zayd bin Khalid al Juhani, may Allah be pleased with him: ‘The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
‘He who provides for a mujahid in the Way of Allah the Almighty, it is as if he himself has made jihad; and he who has supported the family of a mujahid with an act of goodness, it is as if he himself has made jihad.’ (Transmitted by Al Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud and Al-Tirmidhi) (that is to say he obtains the reward for it)
On the authority of Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: ‘The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
‘He who out of faith in Allah and a firm belief in His promise prepares a horse while waiting for jihad then its feeding and drinking and its dung are all in his favour on the day of Resurrection.’ (Transmitted by Al Bukhari)
This is, of course, true for all types of wealth (like the horse) given in the way of Allah:
On the authority of Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, it was said:
‘O Messenger of Allah, what is equal in reward to jihad in Allah's Way.’ He said: ‘You cannot do it.’ But they brought up the same thing before him two or three times more, and he said: ‘You cannot do it.’ Then he said: ‘The equal of the mujahid in Allah's way is he who fasts and stands in worship throughout the night reciting Allah's verses without becoming tired until the mujahid in Allah's way returns.’ (Transmitted by Al Bukhari, Muslim, An-Nisaa’i , Ibn Majah, and At Tirmidhi)
On the authority of Abu Sa’eed al Khudari, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: "The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
‘Shall I tell you who is the best of men and who is the worst? Among the best of men is he who is active in Allah's way on the back of his horse or camel, or on foot, until death comes to him. And among the worst of men is he who reads the Book of Allah Almighty, and remains unenlightened (he does not check himself, nor does he admonish and reprove himself).’ (Transmitted by An-Nisaa'i)
On the authority of Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) say:
‘There are two eyes which the Fire shall not touch: the eye which wept for fear of Allah, and the eye which passed the night on guard in the way of Allah Almighty.’ (From At Tirmidhi)
On the authority of Abu ‘Umayra, May Allah be pleased with him who said: "The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
‘It is dearer to me that I die in the Way of Allah than that if the entire wealth of the world were to become mine.’ (Transmitted by An Nisaa’i)
On the authority of Rashid ibn Sa’d, May Allah be pleased with him, on the authority of one of the companions, that a man said:
‘O Messenger of Allah, how is it that the believers will be put to the test in their graves, but the martyr is free?’ The Messenger said: ‘The glittering of swords over his head is a sufficient test for him!’ (Transmitted by An Nisaa’i)
On the authority of Abu Hurayra, May Allah be pleased with him: "The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
‘The martyr feels nothing more from the pain of slaughter than any one of you feels from the sting of a gnat.’ (Transmitted by At Tirmidhi, An Nisaa’i and Al Darmi. At Tirmidhi designates this as Hasan Gharib)
On the authority of Ibn Mas’ud, May Allah be pleased with him, who said: "The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
‘Our Lord (SWT) is pleased with a man campaigning in Allah 's way, who, when his companions are driven back, and knowing that the odds are against him, nevertheless returns to the battlefield until he is killed. Then Allah says to the angels: "See how My servant returned to the battle field out of his desire for the reward that I provide and out of his fear from my punishments until he was killed. I call on you to witness that I have forgiven him.’
On the authority of ‘Abd al Khayr bin Thabit, on the authority of his father, on the authority of his grandfather, who said: "A woman came to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) named Umm Khalid, wearing a veil, in order to ask him about a son of hers who had been slain in the way of Allah Almighty....The Prophet of Allah (PBUH) said to her:
‘Your son has the reward of two martyrs.’ She asked: ‘Why?" He said: ‘Because he was killed by People of the Book.’ (Transmitted by Abu Dawud)
On the authority of Sahl bin Hunayf (May Allah be pleased with him): "The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
‘He who asks Allah Almighty for martyrdom with sincerity, will be brought by Allah to the mansions of the martyrs, though he may die on his bed.’ (transmitted by Muslim, An Nisaa’i, Ibn Majah, and At Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud)
On the authority of Khuraym ibn Fatik, who said: "The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
‘He who spends a sum in the way of Allah Almighty will have it accredited to his account seven hundred fold.’ (Transmitted by At-Tirmidhi, who classed it as hasan and also by An Nisaa’i).
On the authority of Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: "One of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) passed by a ravine in which there was a small fount of fresh water. He was greatly pleased by this, and said to himself: ‘What if I were to withdraw from mankind and live in this ravine?’ He mentioned this to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH), who said:
‘Don't do it! When one of you takes his place in Allah's way, it is more excellent than if he prayed in his house for seventy years. Do you not wish for Allah to forgive you and bring you into Paradise? Campaign in Allah's way: he who fights in Allah's way mounted on a camel must necessarily enter Paradise.’ (Transmitted by At Tirmidhi.)
On the authority of Al-Miqdam ibn Ma’ad ibn Yakrib, who said: "The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
‘The martyr possesses six distinctions with respect to Allah: he is forgiven, amongst the first to be forgiven; he is shown his place in Paradise; he is not punished in the Grave; he is secure from the supreme terror of the day of judgement; the crown of dignity is placed on his head, a single ruby of which is more precious than the entire world and all it contains; he is wedded to seventy-two of the women of heaven; and he may intercede for seventy of his relatives.’ (Transmitted by At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah)
On the authority of Abu Hurayrah, may Allah Almighty be pleased with him, who said: "The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
‘He who meets Allah with no trace of jihad on him will meet Allah with a flaw in him.’ (Transmitted by Al-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah)
On the authority of Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: "The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
‘He who seeks martyrdom sincerely will be granted it, though it may never touch him.’ (Transmitted by Muslim)
On the authority of Uthman ibn Affan, may Allah be pleased with him, on the authority of the Prophet (PBUH), who said:
‘He who keeps guard for one night in the way of Allah (SWT) will be credited with a thousand nights of fasting and standing in prayer.’ (Transmitted by Ibn Majah)
On the authority of Abul-Dardaa’, may Allah be pleased with him, "The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
‘A campaign by sea is the equivalent of ten campaigns by land: he who is tossed about at sea is like one who wallows in his blood in the way of Allah (SWT).’ (Transmitted by Ibn Majah)
This tradition honours the sea campaign, and the ummah must proceed from this to protect its coastline and strengthen its fleet. This applies by analogy to the air as well, and Allah will increase the reward of those who campaign by air in His way many times over.
On the authority of Jabir ibn Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: "When Abd Allah bin ‘Amr bin Haram was slain on the Day of Uhud, the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
‘O Jabir, shall I tell you what Allah (SWT) said to your father? I said: ‘Yes indeed!’ He said: ‘Allah speaks to no-one save from behind a veil, but He spoke to your father face-to-face, saying: "O My servant, ask of Me what thou wilt, and it shall be granted." He said: "O Lord, grant me life, that I may be slain for Thee for a second time!" He said: "But I have already decreed that they shall not return unto it." He said: "O Lord, let them know who are [left] behind me." So Allah (SWT) sent down these verses "Think not of those who are killed in the way of Allah as dead..." (Surat-aal-Imran (3), ayah 169) And so on up to the end of the verse. (Transmitted by Ibn Majah)
On the authority of Anas, on the authority of his father (may Allah be pleased with them), on the authority of the Prophet (PBUH), who said:
‘It is more pleasing to me to accompany a fighter in Allah's way and to help him on his journey, departing or returning, than this world and what it contains.’ (Transmitted by Ibn Majah)
On the authority of Abu Hurayra, who said: "The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
‘Allah's guests are three: the mujahid, the haji, and the one who intends to perform umra.’ (Transmitted by Muslim)
On the authority of Abul-Dardaa’, who said: "The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
‘The martyr will intercede on behalf of seventy of his family.’ (Transmitted by Abu Dawud)
On the authority of Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, who said: "The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
‘When you deal in hidden Riba, and are fully occupied in your own life and give up jihad; Then Allah shall cover you with such disgrace, as would not be removed, until you would return to your religion again.’ (Transmitted by Ahmad and Abu Dawud, and attested as to its authenticity by Al-Hakim)
On the authority of Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, who said:
"The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) and his Companions set out in a hurry so that they reached Badr ahead of the polytheists. The polytheists arrived, and the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: ‘Rise to the Paradise, whose width embraces the heavens and the earth!" Umayr bin al Humam said: ‘Hurrah!’ The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: ‘What impels you to say "Hurrah! hurrah!" He said: ‘Nothing, O Messenger of Allah, except the hope that I may be one of its people.’ He said: ‘You are indeed one of its people.’"
He (Abu Hurayrah) said:
"And he [Umayr] took out some dates from his quiver and began eating them. Then he said: ‘If I live long enough to eat all my dates, my life will indeed be a long one!’ So he flung away the remaining dates, and fought until he was slain." Transmitted by Muslim.
On the authority of Abu Imran, who said:
"We were at the city of Rum, and they sent out a mighty regiment of Byzantinian soldiers against us. A like number of Muslims, and even more, came out against them. ‘Uqbah ibn Amir was at the head of the Egyptians, and Fadaala bin Ubayd was the head of the entire force. One of the Muslims rushed and attacked the Byzantinian regiment until he passed through it. The Muslims shouted and said: ‘Glory be to Allah! He has cast himself into annihilation!’ But Abu Ayyub al Ansari rose and said: ‘Men, you interpret this verse in this manner, but it was sent down concerning only us, the band of the Ansar. When Allah made Islam powerful and its defenders grew numerous, some of us said to others in secrecy, but not to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH): "We lost our wealth at the earlier periods, and then later Allah Almighty made Islam powerful and its defenders became many. What if we were to settle down to regain our lost wealth?" So God Almighty sent down an answer, rebutting what we had said, to His Prophet: ‘and make not your own hands contribute to (your) destruction.’ (Surat al-Baqarah (2), ayah 195). The destruction referred to our settling down with our wealth, while working to increase it, and abandoning jihad. And Abu Ayyub continued in God's way until he was buried in the land of Rum." (Transmitted by Tirmidhi)
Notice, brother, that Abu Ayyub said this in his old age, he had passed the evening of life and entered into the night of life yet his spirit remained young while his faith yearned for the return of the might and the grandeur of Islam.
On the authority of Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, on the authority of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH), that he said:
‘He who dies without having gone on campaign, and without having exhorted himself to do so, dies in a state of hypocrisy.’ (Transmitted by Muslim, Abu Dawud, and there are many reportings of the same meaning)
There are many precious Ahaadeeth on this subject which contain guidance or commandments regarding jihad. They are so numerous though that even a large book would not suffice to cover them. But otherwise "Al-’Ibrata Feema Warada ‘Anillahi wa Rasulihi fi al Ghazwu wal Jihad wal Hijra" (The Wisdom in What Was Transmitted in the Qur’an and Sunnah about Fighting, Jihad and Hijrah), by Hasan Sidiq Khan, who is specialised in this research, and "Mashari’ alAshwaq ila Masari’ al-’Ashaq wa Matheer al-Gharam ila Dar as-Salam" and what has come in the books of Ahaadeeth, in the sections on jihad, you will see a lot of good.
The Scholars on Jihad
I have just presented to you some verses from the Qur'an and the Noble Ahadith concerning the importance of jihad. Now I would like to present to you some of the opinions from jurisprudence of the Islamic Schools of Thought including some latter day authorities regarding the rules of jihad and the necessity for preparedness. From this we will come to realise how far the ummah has deviated in its practice of Islam as can be seen from the consensus of its scholars on the question of jihad.
The author of the "Majma' al-Anhar fi Sharh Multaqal-Abhar", in describing the rules of jihad according to the Hanafi School, said: "Jihad linguistically means to exert one's utmost effort in word and action; in the Sharee’ah it is the fighting of the unbelievers, and involves all possible efforts that are necessary to dismantle the power of the enemies of Islam including beating them, plundering their wealth, destroying their places of worship and smashing their idols. This means that jihad is to strive to the utmost to ensure the strength of Islam by such means as fighting those who fight you and the dhimmies (if they violate any of the terms of the treaty) and the apostates (who are the worst of unbelievers, for they disbelieved after they have affirmed their belief).
It is fard (obligatory) on us to fight with the enemies. The Imam must send a military expedition to the Dar-al-Harb every year at least once or twice, and the people must support him in this. If some of the people fulfil the obligation, the remainder are released from the obligation. If this fard kifayah (communal obligation) cannot be fulfilled by that group, then the responsibility lies with the closest adjacent group, and then the closest after that etc., and if the fard kifayah cannot be fulfilled except by all the people, it then becomes a fard ‘ayn (individual obligation), like prayer on everyone of the people. This obligation is by virtue of what He, the Almighty, said:
‘Then fight the polytheists...!’
(Surat at-Tawbah (9), ayah 5)
and by what the Prophet (PBUH) said:
‘Jihad is in effect until the Day of Judgement’
If the whole body [of believers] abandons it, they are in a state of sin’ (up to where the author of the book says: ‘If the enemy conquers any territory of Islam, or any regions of it, it becomes a fard ‘ayn, and the woman and the slave shall go forth without the permission of husband or master. In the same way, the child shall go forth without the permission of his parents, and the debtor without the permission of his creditor.’
And in the Kitab al Bahr:
‘Should a Muslim woman be captured in the East, it is incumbent on the people of the West to rescue her unless she is taken to the stronghold cities of the enemies, and it becomes impossible to free her.’
The author of the "Bulghat al-Salik li Aqrab al-Masalik fi Madhhab al-Imam Malik" said:
‘Jihad in Allah's way for the purpose of exalting Allah Almighty's Word every year is a fard kifayah. If some fulfil it, the remainder are absolved of it. It becomes specifically designated (i.e., it becomes a fard ‘ayn like prayer and fasting), when the Imam announces it and the enemy attacks the population of a specific region, whereupon it becomes obligatory on them and if this in sufficient then it becomes obligatory on those in their vicinity. In this case it becomes obligatory on the females and the slaves even though they may not have the permission of their husbands or their masters. It is also obligatory on the debtor even though the lender may not agree to it. It also becomes fard 'ayn on that individual who vows to engage in jihad. Parents have the right to forbid their child from taking part in it only under conditions of fard kifayah. And if a Muslim is held as a prisoner of war by enemies and he does not have enough money to pay to free himself, then it is obligatory on the others to secure his release, even if this requires all of the Muslims' wealth.’
And in Al-Minhaj of Imam Nawawi of the Shafi'i school:
‘Jihad during the time of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) was a fard kifayah, though it is also alleged that it was a fard ‘ayn. Since then, there are two conditions relative to the unbelievers:
If they remain in their own territories, then jihad is not an obligation on all Muslims. As long as a sufficient number of Muslims undertake it, the remainder are released from this duty.
If they invade one of our territories, its population are obliged to repel them with all their force. If fighting is possible then fighting becomes an obligation. Every slave, poor person, son and debtor must prepare for war, even though they may not have permission.."
And in Al-Mughni of Ibn Qudama of the Hanbali school, who said:
‘Jihad is a fard kifayah. If a group of people engage in it, the remainder are released. It becomes a fard ‘ayn under three conditions:
If two armies meet and two lines of soldiers confront one another, those present are forbidden to leave the battlefield, and it becomes a fard ‘ayn on each one to remain at his station.
If the unbelievers attack a territory, it is a fard ‘ayn on its population to fight and repel them.
If the Imam calls a group of people to arms, then they must join his military forces. And he should at least announce Jihad once every year.’
Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal said:
‘I know of nothing after the divine commandments more excellent than jihad, and campaigning by sea is more excellent than campaigning on land.’
Anas ibn Malik, may Allah be pleased with him! said:
‘The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) was asleep. Then he awoke laughing, and Umm Haram said: "What makes you laugh, O Messenger of Allah?" He said: "People of my ummah embarked on a military campaign in Allah's way, riding on the surface of this sea as kings on their thrones,"
and at the end of the Tradition, Umm Haram asked the Prophet (PBUH) to beseech Allah on her behalf that she might be one of them. So he prayed for her, and she lived long enough to ride upon the sea in the Muslim fleet which conquered the island of Cyprus. She died and was buried there, may Allah be pleased with her.
And it says in Al-Muhalla of Ibn Hazm:
‘Jihad is obligatory on the Muslims, but if the borders of the Muslims can be protected, the enemy can be repelled and fought within his own territory then the remainder of the people are released from it. And if not, then the obligation remains. God Almighty said:
‘Go ye forth, (whether equipped) light or heavily, and strive and struggle, with your goods and your persons, in the Cause of Allah!’
(Surat at-Tawbah (9), ayah 41)
It is not permissible to participate in jihad without the permission of the parent. But if Muslim land is invaded, then it is obligatory on those who can help even if their parents do not grant them permission. However, it is not lawful for him to abandon his parents if his parents would suffer in his absence.
And Al-Shawkani said in Al-Sayl al-Jarrar:
‘The arguments regarding the jihad being a religious obligation, both in the Qur’an and in the Sunnah, are too numerous to be set down here. Nevertheless, it is a fard kifayah as long as some people are fulfilling this fard kifayah then the rest are absolved from the duty. Otherwise, it is an fard ‘ayn incumbent on every adult by law until the duty is fulfilled. Similarly, it is a fard ‘ayn also on those people who are ordered to jihad by the Imam.’
The scholarly people are of one opinion on this matter as should be evident and this is irrespective of whether these scholars were Mujtahideen or Muqalideen and it is irrespective of whether these scholars were salaf (early) or khalaf (late). They all agreed unanimously that jihad is a fard kifayah imposed upon the Islamic ummah in order to spread the Da’wah of Islam, and that jihad is a fard ‘ayn if an enemy attacks Muslim lands. Today, my brother, the Muslims as you know are forced to be subservient before others and are ruled by disbelievers. Our lands have been besieged, and our hurruma'at (personal possessions, respect, honour, dignity and privacy) violated. Our enemies are overlooking our affairs, and the rites of our din are under their jurisdiction. Yet still the Muslims fail to fulfil the responsibility of Da’wah that is on their shoulders. Hence in this situation it becomes the duty of each and every Muslim to make jihad. He should prepare himself mentally and physically such that when comes the decision of Allah, he will be ready.
I should not finish this discussion without mentioning to you that the Muslims, throughout every period of their history (before the present period of oppression in which their dignity has been lost) have never abandoned jihad nor did they ever become negligent in its performance, not even their religious authorities, mystics, craftsmen, etc. They were all always ready and prepared. For example, Abdullah ibn al Mubarak, a very learned and pious man, was a volunteer in jihad for most of his life, and 'Abdulwahid bin Zayd, a sufi and a devout man, was the same. And in his time, Shaqiq al Balkhi, the shaykh of the sufis encouraged his pupils towards jihad.
And Al Badr al Ayni, the commentator on Al Bukhari (scholar and muhaddith), would take part in jihad one year, study for one year and go on pilgrimage one year, while the judge Asad ibn al Furat of the Maliki School was an admiral in his day and Imam Shafi'i would shoot ten arrows and not miss once.
Such was the example set by the early generations of Muslims, may Allah's grace be upon them! My brother, how do we compare with them?
Why Do the Muslims Fight?
Islam allows jihad and permits war until the following Qur'anic verse is fulfilled:
‘We will we show them Our signs in the universe, and in their ownselves, until it becomes manifest to them that this (the Qur'an) is the truth.’
(Surat al-Fussilat (41), ayah 53)
People have for some time now ridiculed this but today these same people acknowledge that preparation for war is the surest way to peace! Allah did not ordain jihad for the Muslims so that it may be used as a tool of oppression or tyranny or so that it may be used by some to further their personal gains. Rather jihad is used to safeguard the mission of spreading Islam. This would guarantee peace and the means of implementing the Supreme Message. This is a responsibility which the Muslims bear, this Message guiding mankind to truth and justice. For Islam, even as it ordains jihad, it extols peace: the Blessed and Almighty said:
‘But if they incline to peace, you also incline to it, and (put your) trust in Allah.’
(Surat al-Anfal (8), ayah 61)
The Muslims in war had only one concern and this was to make the name of Allah Supreme, there was no room at all for any other objective. The wish for glory and reputation were forbidden to the Muslims. The love of wealth, the misappropriation of the benefits of war and striving to conquer through unjust methods are all made forbidden to the Muslim. Only one intention was possible and that was the offering of sacrifice and the taking of pains for the guidance of mankind.
On the authority of Al-Harith bin Muslim, on the authority of his father, who said:
‘The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) sent us on a military expedition. When we reached the area to be raided, I urged on my horse and got ahead of my companions. The people of that area met me with cries of lamentation, and I said to them: "If you say: ‘There is no god but Allah’ you are safe." So they said it. My companions reproached me and said: "You have prevented us from taking any spoils!" When we came back to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH), they told him what I had done. He called me over and found what I had done praiseworthy. Then he said to me: "Allah Almighty has indeed decreed for you so much and so much reward for every human being." And he said: "I myself shall write something for you in the way of a bequest after my death." He did so, sealed it, and handed it over to me.’ (Transmitted by Abu Dawud.)
And on the authority of Shaddad bin al Hadi (may Allah be pleased with him):
‘A man of the [nomad] Arabs came and believed in the Prophet (PBUH). Then he said: "I shall emigrate with you." And the Prophet (PBUH) put him into the charge of some of his Companions. In a campaign the Prophet (PBUH) took some booty and this was divided up, and he gave him his share. And he [i.e., the Arab] said: "What is this?" He said: "I have apportioned it to you." He said: "It was not for this that I followed you; rather I followed you that I might be pierced here (and he motioned with his hand to his neck) with an arrow, and that I might die and enter Paradise." He said: "If you are truthful in what you have just said, then Allah will fulfil your desire." So they remained there for a space; then they rose to do battle with the enemy. He was carried over to the Prophet, having been struck with an arrow exactly where he had pointed. The Prophet (PBUH) said: "Is it he?" They said: "Yes." He said: "He was truthful in what he said, so Allah answered him." Then he was shrouded in the garment of the Prophet (PBUH), and he [i.e., the Prophet] walked before him and prayed over him. This is part of what he said in his prayer: "O Allah, this is your servant who went forth as an Emigrant in your way and was slain a martyr. And I am a witness unto it." (Transmitted by An-Nisaa'i)
On the authority of Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him:
‘A man said: "O Apostle of Allah, what of a man who wants to engage in jihad in Allah's way, but desires the goods of this world?" He said: "There is no reward for him." And he [i.e., the man] repeated this question to him three times, but he said: "There is no reward for him."’ (Transmitted by Abu Dawud)
On the authority of Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, may Allah be pleased with him, who said:
‘The Apostle of Allah (PBUH) was asked about a man who fights courageously, one who fights zealously, and one who fights hypocritically. Which of these was in the way of Allah? He said: "He who fights so that Allah's Word is the most exalted is in Allah's way."’ (Transmitted in Muslim, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, An-Nisaa'i and Ibn Majah)
The companions’ (may Allah's grace be with them) behaviour in the battles and in the territories they conquered indicates the extent to which they abstained from indulging in their personal desires and cravings, and the extent of their dedication to their fundamental and original goal: the guidance of mankind to the truth until Allah's Word is the most exalted. The charge of some people who accuse the companions of being covetous of power and authority, desirous of grabbing countries and ascendancy or that a passion for earning a living was driving their activities is ludicrous.
Mercy in the Islamic Jihad
The Islamic jihad is the noblest of endeavours and its method of realisation is the most sublime and exalted. For Allah has forbidden aggression. He, the Almighty, has said:
‘But transgress not the limits. Truly, Allah likes not the transgressors.’
(Surat al-Baqarah (2), ayah 190)
and He commanded that justice be observed, even towards the enemy and the adversary. He, the Almighty, has said:
‘And let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just: that is nearer to piety.’
(Surat al-Maa’idah (5), ayah 8)
Allah instructs the Muslims to act with the utmost mercy. For when they fight, they do not instigate hostilities, nor do they steal nor plunder property, nor do they violate someone's honour, nor do they indulge in wanton destruction. In their warfare they are the best of fighters, just as in peace they are the most excellent of peacemakers.
On the authority of Burayda, may Allah be pleased with him, who said:
‘Whenever the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) appointed a commander over an army or a band of raiders, he told him to remain conscious of Allah Almighty in his inward self and to remain concerned for the care of the Muslims who were with him. Then he [i.e., the Prophet] said: "Strive in the name of Allah in Allah's way! Fight those who disbelieve in Allah: campaign, but do not indulge in excesses, do not act treacherously, do not mutilate, and do not slay children."’ (Transmitted by Muslim.)
On the authority of Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, who said:
‘The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: "When one of you fights, let him avoid [striking] the face."’ (Transmitted by Bukhari and Muslim)
On the authority of Ibn Mas’ud, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: "The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
‘The most self-restrained from amongst mankind even at the time of killing are the people of iman.’ (Transmitted by Abu Dawud)
On the authority of Abdullah bin Yazid al Ansari, may Allah be pleased with him, who said:
‘The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) forbade plundering and mutilation.’ (Transmitted by Al Bukhaari)
It is forbidden to slay women, children, and old people, to kill the wounded, or to disturb monks, hermits, and the peaceful who offer no resistance. Contrast this mercy with the murderous warfare of the ‘civilised’ people and their terrible atrocities! Compare their international law alongside this all-embracing, divinely ordained justice!
O Allah , bless the Muslims with a correct understanding of the deen, and save the world from these injustices with the enlightenment of Islam!
Associated Matters Concerning Jihad
Many Muslims today mistakenly believe that fighting the enemy is jihad asghar (a lesser jihad) and that fighting one's ego is jihad akbar (a greater jihad). The following narration [athar] is quoted as proof: "We have returned from the lesser jihad to embark on the greater jihad." They said: "What is the greater jihad?" He said: "The jihad of the heart, or the jihad against one's ego."
This narration is used by some to lessen the importance of fighting, to discourage any preparation for combat, and to deter any offering of jihad in Allah's way. This narration is not a saheeh (sound) tradition: The prominent muhaddith Al Hafiz ibn Hajar al-Asqalani said in the Tasdid al-Qaws:
‘It is well known and often repeated, and was a saying of Ibrahim ibn 'Abla.’
Al Hafiz Al Iraqi said in the Takhrij Ahadith al-Ahya’:
‘Al Bayhaqi transmitted it with a weak chain of narrators on the authority of Jabir, and Al Khatib transmitted it in his history on the authority of Jabir.’
Nevertheless, even if it were a sound tradition, it would never warrant abandoning jihad or preparing for it in order to rescue the territories of the Muslims and repel the attacks of the disbelievers. Let it be known that this narration simply emphasises the importance of struggling against one's ego so that Allah will be the sole purpose of everyone of our actions.
Other associated matters concerning jihad include commanding the good and forbidding the evil. It is said in the Hadeeth: "One of the greatest forms of jihad is to utter a word of truth in the presence of a tyrannical ruler." But nothing compares to the honour of shahadah kubra (the supreme martyrdom) or the reward that is waiting for the Mujahideen.
My brothers! The ummah that knows how to die a noble and honourable death is granted an exalted life in this world and eternal felicity in the next. Degradation and dishonour are the results of the love of this world and the fear of death. Therefore prepare for jihad and be the lovers of death. Life itself shall come searching after you.
My brother, you should know that one day you will face death and this ominous event can only occur once. If you suffer on this occasion in the way of Allah, it will be to your benefit in this world and your reward in the next. And remember brother that nothing can happen without the Will of Allah: ponder well what Allah, the Blessed, the Almighty, has said:
‘Then after the distress, He sent down security for you. Slumber overtook a party of you, while another party was thinking about themselves (as to how to save themselves, ignoring the others and the Prophet) and thought wrongly of Allah - the thought of ignorance. They said, "Have we any part in the affair?" Say you (O Muhammad): "Indeed the affair belongs wholly to Allah." They hide within themselves what they dare not reveal to you, saying: "If we had anything to do with the affair, none of us would have been killed here." Say: "Even if you had remained in your homes, those for whom death was decreed would certainly have gone forth to the place of their death: but that Allah might test what is in your hearts; and to purify that which was in your hearts (sins), and Allah is All-Knower of what is in (your) hearts."’
(Surat al-Imran (3), ayah 154)
You should yearn for an honourable death and you will gain perfect happiness. May Allah grant myself and yours the honour of martyrdom in His way.


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